Crafts and art

Art treasures from the Kargopol region

Art treasures from the Kargopol region

Birchbark covered boxes with stamped and openwork decora­tion. Height 20.5 cm, 19cm, 22 cm; diam. 12 cm, 13 cm, 15 cm. Made by A. and V. Petukhovs in the 1970s, Settlement of Voloshka

Art treasures from the Kargopol region
The land of Kargopol, lying around the Lake Lache and the River Onega, is an administrative unit of the Arkhangelsk Region, in the south-west of the Soviet Union. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the town of Kargopol was one of Russia’s major cultural and trading centres. In the 17th century the architecture attained to such a high level as to form a distinctive local school; applied arts and folk crafts as well as the calligraphy, emerged and throne in the land; the local school of icon painting was well known all over the country.
The heritage of Kargopol began to be studied in the past centuries, and by now many specimens of the folk arts, icons and written records have found their way into different Soviet museums. This volume introduces to the art lovers the relics of Kargopol, many of which are being published for the first time.

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Mordovian caskets

Mordovian caskets

At the hollow well. Village Pronzino Spassky County Penza province.

Mordovian caskets

ORDER IN ORDER OR IN THE HOUSE

According to the condition of the tubs, it was possible to determine the well-being of the rural farmstead. Kadushki in order – order and in the house. If they were lying around the house, they were drying up, which meant that the farm was in decline.

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Mordovian sledges

Mordovian sledges

Driving in the village of Pazelki. Penza province. 1926 year.

It is unlikely that any young person today can talk about the traditional winter transport of our ancestors – sleighs. But even relatively recently they were ubiquitous. Now, except that on winter holidays in some places the guys are rolled on sleighs-rozvalnyah …
Manufacture of sledges in the XIX century peasants engaged in 148 Russian and Mordvinian villages of Mordovia. One of the centers of sledge fishing was the village of Luhmensky Maidan, which is 30 km from Insara. This was facilitated by the proximity of the market, the availability of their forests, the demand for sledges and … poor soils.

Mordovian sledges

It is unlikely that any young person today can talk about the traditional winter transport of our ancestors – sleighs. But even relatively recently they were ubiquitous. Now, except that on winter holidays in some places the guys are rolled on sleighs-rozvalnyah …
Manufacture of sledges in the XIX century peasants engaged in 148 Russian and Mordvinian villages of Mordovia. One of the centers of sledge fishing was the village of Luhmensky Maidan, which is 30 km from Insara. This was facilitated by the proximity of the market, the availability of their forests, the demand for sledges and … poor soils.
Sani bought and local cab drivers, but in much larger quantities they went to the steppe areas of the Transvolga, in the Samara and Simbirsk provinces. From there special buyers came for them.
Depending on the purpose of the sledge differed in size and appearance. Simplified woodwinds, and wagon sledges were made, and, finally, sheaths used for trips.

Mordovian sledges

Three of the Shrovetide. With a picture of the artist Petro Gruzinsky. The year 1889.

The drills were intended for the transport of weights, mainly firewood and logs; when transporting the latter, they were tied up with “droplets”. At the same level, the peasants went to the bazaars and fairs. In this case, they attached a “braid” – a body woven from thin long rods. This kind of cart is known as “sledgehole”. There were driftwood and sledgeholes practically in every household.
Of the festive visiting sleds, the most common were the women: in them our ancestors went on a visit, to a wedding, and went to Maslenitsa. Usually they were made with two seats: the rear – for two people and the front (for the sun) – for the driver. Koshevni had quite wide lateral “bends”, protecting them from turning over on the bumps and turns.
Hard skins of the tree – oak, ash and maple – went to the runners. On the plank – birch, linden, aspen. On knitting – young trees – elms. For skinning cheap sledges, mats were purchased, for half-sheep sleds. Different types of sled required different qualities of materials: for firewood, and worse things went on, on wagons – medium-quality materials, on the best ones.
The average length of the woodwork was on a working day and consisted of 5 different operations, a sledge-sled for 2 days and 8 operations, a sheathed for 3 days and 12 operations.

Mordovian sledges

Sleigh. Photo of Ivan Bogdanov. The 1930s.

Work on the design of the sled profile in such a sequence. At first, we harvested 8 knits – 5 for the bottom and 3 for the top. The knits sawed and hollowed out places for folds. They sawed, hewed and cut the bark of the stickers and hammered into them nests for the dust, which required about 10 pieces – 8 short ones: I fastened the runners and 2 long ones to strengthen the front end. After that, a large rear arch was scratched and reinforced in the muck-holes. Then the front end was hollowed out, the upper chairs were made out with the backs and bends and reinforced them in place. The small arcs were scratched. Dyed and nailed to the ground lubki. At last the zodok and lateral arches swam out, and were covered with matting.
With special diligence, the craftsmen worked on the production of custom sledges. Since in this case materials of better quality were used, their cost was one and a half times higher than the market value.
The most important stages of the technology of sledge fishing were bending the runners and assembling the crews. Initially, both types of work were not divided. Each master made a sleigh from beginning to end. Sam bent rails, prepared knitting and other parts, he himself collected the finished products. Bending of runners was made in spring and summer, and lining of sledges in autumn.
The obligatory elements of the workshops were the guy and the bending machine. The guy was a long brick stove with one or two boilers. The water heated in the cauldrons evaporated, the steam penetrated into the large room under the upper vault, where the planks fit – the future runners.
Because of the high cost of the boys were not all Sannikov. In such cases, they were dispensed with without them, steaming the skids in the dung. The manure was used fresh, unbroken, predominantly horse. Plakhs were packed in rows, heads to each other, which were closed with manure, and then they fell asleep with earth. In this position, they were at least two weeks, with the temperature and humidity in the pile being monitored. If the manure became dry and cold, it was watered with warm water. It was impossible neither to steam, nor to skid steadfast. The people who were ridden during the drive quickly broke down, unpaired – they broke when bending.
The steamed plows well succumbed to bending on a special lathe. It had the shape of the bend of the skid and was connected to the collar, by means of which the bending was performed. To dry the folded skids and fix the bend, the craftsmen arranged a special wall in poles, to which bends and spacers were attached in a bent kind of skids. However, more often the poles were dried at the walls of the outbuildings, tying them so that they did not straighten.
Before dressing the sleigh, the runners were dried: in the winter – in the huts under the ceiling, in the summer – under a canopy.
They collected sledges in the yards under the awnings.
Saints were mostly engaged in men, women also helped them with bending razoev. To perform light work, for example, for scraping the bark, harvesting ropes, children were also involved. Knowledge and skills were inherited.
Sale of sledges began in October, and ended on the eve of Maslenitsa. In October, there was a greater demand for sledges, in November – for wood, in December – for sleds. This allowed the Sannies to remain a fairly prosperous part of the peasantry.

Mordovian sleigh Manufacture of sledges in the XIX century

Byzantine Icons of Cyprus

Byzantine Icons of Cyprus

9. CHRIST HELKOMENOS.
End of the 12th, beginning of the 13th century 112 x 83.5 cm
Church of the Holy Cross, Pelendri

Byzantine Icons of Cyprus
The Exhibition of Byzantine Icons from Cyprus at the Benaki Museum is an admirable way of making the presence of Cyprus felt in the metropolis of Greek culture. Through the medium of this exhibition, Cyprus presents a true image of herself: the image of a creator of beauty — of magnificent works of art that form an integral part of the island’s rich cultural heritage.

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Painting Afrasiaba

Painting Afrasiaba

Table. I. Premise IX. Frieze. Peacocks.

The first paintings were discovered during the excavation in 1965 in room IX. The surface of the walls is smoothly plastered, the artists began their work with a frieze under the ceiling.
The drawing consists of repeated images of two peacocks coming from both sides to the vase, and a continuous ornamental strip above them (Table I). The width of the frieze with pheasants 0.2 m, the rims – 0.1 m. The vase, apparently, is metal, flat, without a foot, the lower part is scalloped, the upper one is smooth, yellow. In the vase fruit: in the center, apparently, the fruit of a pomegranate, from the top of which two yellow ribbons come down to the edges of the bowls. On both sides of the pomegranate one round fruit, perhaps apples, and on the very edge of the vase from the right and left sides of 3 mugs – some berries. All fruits are depicted on a blue background. On both sides of the vase in the lower part of the frieze are blue leaves of a stylized plant. The general background, which depicts a vase and peacocks, is red.

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Jacques Louis David

Jacques Louis David – representative of the petty bourgeoisie, close to the people, with whom he remained socially and morally solidary. He became an artist of the French Revolution, and then an official painter of Napoleon’s court.

Jacques Louis David

ANTIQUE MATRIX DEATH OF MARAT 1793
Brussels, Royal Museums of Fine Arts (canvas, oil, 175 x 136)
Jacques Louis David is the leading representative of French classicism, the main spokesman for the history of the Revolution and Napoleonic rule. Formed in Italy under the influence of the artistic language of Raphael (1483 – 1520), Caravaggio (1571 – 1610) and Nicolas Poussin (1594 – 1665), he departs from court painting, from the taste of rococo, bizarre forms and serpentine lines towards the canon, again affirming principles of ancient art.

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Military Decorations

Military Decorations

The War Merit Cross.
From left to right, top to bottom:
2nd Class with Swords, by Wilhelm Annetsberger (5 million awarded)
2nd Class without Swords (2 million awarded);
War Merit Medal ($ million awarded);
1st Class with Swords, by Bauer & Sohn (450,000 awarded);
1st Class without Swords, by Steinhauer & Luck (92,000 awarded).

Military Decorations

Adolf Hitler understood very well the philosophy of decorations, as embodied in Napoleon’s famous statement: ‘Give me enough ribbons to place on the tunics of my soldiers and I can conquer the world!’ The permanent display of war badges, campaign shields, cuff titles and other awards, a practice which reached its height during the 1942-5 period, gave the veteran Wehrmacht soldier his own distinctive appearance, calculated to play an important part in the morale-boosting psychology of Nazi Germany. Photographs of highly decorated officers and men were regularly spread across the front pages of newspapers throughout occupied Europe, and their stories were recalled in radio broadcasts and on the cinema screen. There is little doubt that the incentive of the Iron Cross alone was instrumental in spurring many troops on to perform almost superhuman deeds during the last few hopeless months of the war.

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Festive clothing of the Russian North

Festive clothing of the Russian North

THE GIRLS CLOTHES
Arkhangelsk province, Mezensky district, Dorogorsky volost, Zakaka-kurie village.
Sleeve: Kisei, cotton fabric and lace. Sewn on the typewriter. The length is 62.
Skirt: Shtof, chintz, cotton fabric. It is sewn on the hands and partially on the typewriter. The length is 99.
Skirt: Cotton fabric. Is sewn on the typewriter. The length is 88.
Коротенька: Silk fabric, printed linen fabric (heel), galloon, silk braid. Stitched on the hands. The length is 60. Bandage: Galloon, kumach, glass pearl beads, seed beads, pearls, button, foil, tinsel fringe, cotton tape. Sewing with glass beads and beads. 56 x 21, the length of the bands is 24.
Beads: Amber. The length of the string is 67, the diameter of the beads is from 3.3 to 0.8.
Arkhangelsk State Museum of Wooden Architecture and Folk Art “Malye Korely”.
Restoration. 2001 – 2003 Purification from impurities, tissue strengthening, lagging of the bite on the galloons was made. Strengthened beads in sewing bandages on the pattern with the restoration of losses. Restorer N. V. Larikova.

RUSSIAN NORTH BY THE HAZARS OF THE RESTORATOR. FESTIVE CLOTHES
For the exhibition, the most significant works in artistry, things that have undergone a complex restoration, and the most typical items from the restored ones for the last two decades were selected. At the exhibition were shown church fabrics of the XV – XIX centuries, fabrics and clothing of the population of the Russian North of the XVIII – XX centuries, samples of archeological fabrics of the XII – XX centuries. and modern objects of applied art created by restorers in traditional techniques.

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