Masters of Kosovo ceramics
Hutsul’s ceramics are extraordinarily original and unique. It has its centuries-old history, its artistic features, which were formed and developed in past eras. Her traditions were passed on from generation to generation, from generation to generation, enriched with new means of expression. So gradually the precious heritage of folk decorative and applied art of Hutsulytsyna was created.
A new period in the history of the development of Hutsul ceramics began during the years of Soviet power. In the first post-war years, the formation of pottery on Hutsulytsin is closely connected with the names of remarkable Kosovar masters, members of the Union of Artists of the USSR Pavlina Iosifovna Tsvilyk (1861-1964), Mikhail Ivanovich (1903-1972) and Anna Iosifovna (1903-1981) Roshbyubikov. Taking as a basis the artistic heritage of the potters of the XIX century D. Zintiuk and P. Koshak from Pistyn, O. Bakhmatyuk and P. Baranyuk from Kosovo, they successfully worked on the creation of new decorative and household ceramics.
After the death of her husband in 1952, her granddaughter Nadezhda Vasilyevna Verbivskaya (born in 1925) became an assistant to Tsvilyk, she was given a love for this folk craft by a craftsman.
It is remarkable that everyday scenes and juicy ornamental motifs come alive in all of its paintings, like on the dishes and tiles of the masters of the past. So, on the decorative plates, dishes and vases are placed traditional genre compositions: hunting, folk festivals, horse harnesses, scenes from rural life. Among them, the Hutsul wedding attracts a bright national theme.
Especially original are the works of Pavlina Iosifovna Tsvilyk with herbal motifs. With great skill she wove into them not only traditional images of animals, but also new motifs, for example, the image of a dove – a symbol of peace. Attracts an interesting decorative solution to the pigeon – delicately and subtly engraved torso and wings, filled with a lot of green dots. They create the impression of a whole patterned pattern, the picturesqueness and richness that small streaks give during firing. In other works, you can see very different images of birds – with lush tails and flowering heads.
A significant place among plant and geometric motifs was occupied by large original flower sockets. Pavlina Iosifovna devoted most of her work to the development of these compositions. She made flowers from dots, rhombuses, wavy lines, dashes, petals of unusual shapes. Creating innumerable variations of these simple elements, the craftsman each time received all new fantastic patterns. Unlike other ceramists in Kosovo, its method of painting is unusual: it places the ornamental motifs on the product plane with utmost freedom. Interwoven with each other, they create the illusion of a peculiar movement. In addition, the ornamentation filled the entire central part, there was almost no white background. The rest of the surface of household and decorative dishes was decorated with ornamental strips of geometric motifs. This master stressed the architectonics of products, the monolithic form, its connection with decorative color paintings.
Simultaneously Tsivilk worked on creating an interesting traditional decorative sculpture – clay figures of rams, deer, cows. Like in other types of ceramics, they showed high talent masters. Often on the back of the animals, she skillfully placed small vases. The whole surface of the body is painted with floral ornament, the painting is sustained in the traditional juicy color. Saturated underglaze colors – green, sunny-yellow. The name of the technician is engraving and horn.
The works of Pavlina Iosifovna Tsvilyk were repeatedly exhibited at exhibitions in our country and abroad, testifying to the great success of Hutsul ceramics. Special recognition was given to her works at the World Exhibition in Brussels and the international exhibition in Sofia in 1958. Her works attracted attention at exhibitions in New York in 1959, in 1962 in Prague. Pitchers, vases, bowls and plates Peacocks Iosifovna Tsvilyk differ refinement of forms, plasticity of complex engraved plant motifs – petals – “coachmen”, flowers, bells, buds, which are so rich in the land of Prykarpattya. For his art works Kosovan received a silver medal.
Tsvilyk’s traditions are successfully developed by her daughter Stefania Tanasovna Zayachuk (born in 1909) and granddaughter Nadezhda Vasilievna Verbivskaya, whose work reveals a new page in the folk art of ceramics. They are members of the creative team of the Kosovo Artistic Production Workshops of the Art Fund of the Ukrainian SSR. Together with Verbivsky, her children work – Vasiliy’s son and daughter Oksana. Growing young artists, working in a creative group, show curiosity, exactingness to themselves, diligence. This gives us the right to assume that over time they will achieve serious success in ceramics and in the future will become worthy continuers of the Tsvilykov dynasty.
They left their mark in the art of ceramics Anna Iosifovna and Mikhail Ivanovich Roshbyubuk. A characteristic feature of their creativity, as well as the creativity of Tsvilyk, is that it has, in the full sense of the word, achieved its rise due to the extraordinary vitality of the best folk traditions.
MI Roshbybuk was born in Kolomyia. From a young age he began to make ceramic products. He studied with the Kolomi potters, among whom was the famous master SI Patkovsky, and also in the local industrial school.
Since the 1930s, Anna Iosifovna was his first reliable assistant in creating unique works. She, like her sister PI Tsvilyk, grew up and learned the pottery in the family of the hereditary potter Joseph Sovizdrayuk.
A bright idea of the artistic and stylistic features of the skill of the spouses is given by many works that are in the collection of the Kolomiya Museum of Folk Art of Hutsulytsyn. Made in different periods, they testify to the search for new forms, decor, about the desire to revive those or other types of Hutsul ceramics. At the same time the couple Roshbyuk creatively treated the techniques and traditions that they were handed over by the old masters. Their bowls, jars, decorative vases, kalachi and other types of decorative utensils are close to folk forms. But this similarity did not mean a pure repetition of ancient ceramic patterns. It was expressed in the ability to use samples precisely through the creative rethinking of each element of the decor. Confidently and clearly stretched the shape of the vessel on a fast, constantly moving potter’s wheel. The forms grew and blossomed like fantastic plants with lively, mobile, plastically expressive silhouettes.
Many of the works of Roshbybuk, stored in the museums of Leningrad, Kiev, Lvov, Kolomyia, speak of the high talent of the masters who created the magnificence of decorative patterns. Almost all of their works are painted with floral and geometric ornaments. Cleverly combining these two basic types of decor, they created original decorative compositions. Sometimes Roshbyuk painted the vessels only with geometric motifs, encircling the shapes of the products in several separate bands. Interesting products without surface division, skillfully covered with intricate weaving of leaves and flowers.
Masters of Kosovo ceramics
Very delicately solve ceramists color gamut. It is limited to them by several colors – yellow, brown and green on a white background. A juicy and more vivid pattern distinguishes the horns on the dark surface. Luminous yellow, white or green colors in combination with a brown background give bright colourful inflorescences. Roshbyuk did a lot to train young specialists. In 1957, Anna Iosifovna and Mikhail Ivanovich organized a pottery workshop at the Kosovskaya TG Shevchenko’s Works of Fine Arts, now the workshop of the Hutsulytsyn production and art association. Since then, the most fruitful period in the life of the ceramists began – the time when their many years of creative experience and knowledge were transferred to young artists. Roshbyuk carefully and carefully taught young people to master pottery, to work independently and tirelessly, improving their skills. Today their disciples and followers have become famous masters. Among them are members of the Union of Artists of the USSR – Mikhail Kikot, Vasily Aronets, Anna Grimaliuk, Maria Palyanitsya and many others.
Roshbyuki devoted pottery to their entire life. Mikhail Ivanovich for more than 40 years has been engaged in this craft and until recent years he has not abandoned his favorite business. Anna Iosifovna, despite her advanced age, still works, makes small traditional bowls, plates, vases, figurines. Its cuckoo whistles are interesting. But, despite this, they are vital, expressive and very sincere.
The exposition of the Kolomyia Museum reflects the work of the successors of the family dynasty Roshbyuby – daughters Orysi Kozak, Stephanie Voloshchuk, Rosalia Ilyuk. The craftsmen inherited from their mother and father a similar manner of painting, but on the whole their works have an individual, easily recognizable handwriting. The rich artistic heritage of the folk craftsmen Tsivilk and Roshbyub, who have made famous the skill of Kosovo, gives direction to new searches.