Altitude Cross Vologda
Altitude Cross Vologda. Ancient descriptions of many Russian monasteries and temples mention large altar crosses, often having a complex and interesting history associated with the birth and existence of ancient architectural monuments of Russia. At present, unique works of this kind are kept in a number of the largest museums of country. They are well studied and published. However, in our days in the funds of provincial museums there are amazing finds of unique, previously unknown monuments of arts and crafts in need of restoration and research.
From such monuments it is necessary to note a wooden cross of the XV-XVI century beginning from the Hermitage collection. On two sides in five round medallions the cross is decorated with ten iconic images of northern letters: the Savior, the Mother of God, John the Baptist, the archangels Michael and Gabriel, Nicholas, Dmitry, George, John the Merciful, Paraskeva-Pyashshchy. Altitude Cross Vologda.
Many four-pointed wooden crosses of the XVII century are depicted in archival photographs. On such monuments (most of which have not survived to our time), a very interesting combination of a stylized vegetative pattern and icon images in round medallions. Such works include a carved wooden cross from the second half of the 17th century from the Resurrection Monastery in Uglich. The cross has a fine (rays), on the edge is decorated with round beads, reminiscent of pearls. In the relief carved decor of the interwoven stems of herbs weave fantastic flowers alternating with real daisies and cornflowers. In the center of the cross in a round medallion – the iconographic image of the Crucifixion, on the edges – in round medallions – the holidays are written.
The monument is decorated with gilded basen silver and carved bone plates (of 84 plates many are lost and replaced by later ones). Perhaps the cross entered the Savior-Prilunky Monastery as a precious contribution of the Grand Duke Vasily III or his son Ivan IV3. Researchers of the cross suggest that the monumental work was done by the famous Troitsky artist Amvrosiy and the masters of his circle.
Ancient monumental wooden crosses with magnificent carvings are kept in the Novgorod Museum. Pit and commemorative crosses often stood in an open place in the open, outside the temple, their origin is associated with the tradition of approving crosses in memory of the laying of a temple or monastery. The inscription on the cross informs us that on the basis of the cross the “tree” made by the hands of the founder of the monastery of monk Savva and erected by him upon the advent of the river Visheru.
Very interesting is the wooden eight-pointed cross of the first half of the 16th century from the Resurrection Monastery with a large carved “Crucifixion” and complex relief images forming a symbolic dogmatic composition on the theme of the Resurrection. Round medallions at the ends of the central crossbar of this cross are the influence on the Novgorod monument of Byzantine four-pointed crosses with discs at the ends.
In the funds of the Vologda State Historical and Architectural Museum-Reserve in 1991, a previously unknown two-meter eight-pointed cross was discovered. Black, covered with a thick layer of soot and dust, with a broken enamel, half-scattered pearls, a cracked wooden base, he did not attract the attention of historians of Russian art.
The cross was restored by the specialists of the Metal Department of the State Institute of Restoration (State Institute of Scientific and Technical Information) V.V. Igoshev and VVVetluzhsky. In March 1998, the exhibition of this unique work was held in the exhibition hall of the State NIIR.
After cleaning the massive timber from which the Vologda cross was made, a dense red-brown texture, characteristic of cypress, was opened. Expensive and rare “cypress tree – according to G. Florensky – an ancient symbol of eternal life and incorruption”. The archival materials found indicate that the throne behind which the cross was located was also made of cypress. The imported tree was very rare in northern Russian churches in such large quantities.
Attention is drawn to the oval medallion with the cruciform lace frame of the rocaille ornament in the lower crosshair. On the medallion “The Last Supper” was stitched, repeating the composition of the icon, written by the royal isography Simon Ushakov in 1685 for the iconostasis of the Assumption Cathedral of the Trinity-Sergius Lavra. The master and compositional center of the chased tomb was made by an oval dish on a low pallet with a slightly convex bottom. On the icon of Simon Ushakov there is exactly the same dish, but the center of the composition is Christ, whose figure is highlighted against the background of red drapery.
The monumental building in the form of a high cube on the culmination is crowned with five onion heads close to each other, mounted on light drums decorated with an arched band and narrow columns.
Very peculiar interior of the temple, which has a two-pillar structure. Two powerful pillars are placed in the center of the podklet and in the upper main floor of the church. Two-pillar temples in the 16th-17th centuries were widely used in the Russian North and in the central strip of Russia. The Church of St. Nicholas in Vladychnaya Sloboda has characteristic features of the Kostroma architectural variant and is most likely connected with the work of the artel of the 17th-century Kostroma masters.
The iconostasis of the temple with figures of angels holding ripids was one of the best in Vologda. The parade, rich in baroque details, the iconostasis had a polychrome finish with white, blue, gold tones, generously decorated with wreaths, medallions and garlands, which created in the temple a certain theatrical solemnity, so characteristic of the 18th century.
The altar cross is a unique work of Russian decorative and applied art of the XVIII century and is closely connected with the most ancient domestic cultural traditions. Based on the archival materials found and the stylistic features, the Vologda cross can be dated in 1785.