Andrei Pavlovich Gogin
Andrei Pavlovich Gogin began to work even before the revolution, his work as if connected several generations of Zhostovo masters. Gogin’s whole life is inseparable from the history of the village of Zhostov. Here he was born in 1893. Here his “grandfather – Ivan Pavlovich, his father – Pavel Ivanovich worked on his” free hiring “.
After graduation at the age of 12, Andrei Pavlovich Gogin entered the disciples to the famous master IS Leontiev, who noticed the great talent of a teenager. Three years later, Andrei Pavlovich began working at the Vishnyakovs factory. They worked slowly, with diligence. “One tray a day. From six in the morning to eight in the evening, “the master says.
The “leading” plot of the Zhostovo fishery is flowers. Landscapes, which are already found on the trays of the XIX century, mythological scenes, birds and others have not found a permanent shelter here. From time to time the masters turn to them, but again return to the flowers, intricate, but by no means capricious garlands of flower ligature, for everything here is subordinated to the shape of a tray, the color of the background, adapted to the hand of the master.
“Each master had his own style,” says Gogin. And the general style, representing the face of the Zhostovo fishery. Maybe that’s why all sorts of imposing standards, picturesque techniques, alien to the specificity of Zhostov, did not work.
With this is the specific nature of the artist’s work. Painting an object, he draws them from his imagination. Flowers are transformed and rethought in the picture. And yet this process can not be called stylization. The artist subordinates nature to the picturesque design, the task of decorative design of the object, the artistic system of painting that has developed here.
Let’s start with backgrounds. Since the XIX century and up to the present time in Zhostovo they paint on bright monophonic backgrounds. There is also a “through” background, created with the help of a thin aluminum or bronze powder. For a long time, a mother of pearl was used as a background. Depending on the background color, the task facing the master also changes.
The most common in the creative practice of masters Zhostov black background. A bouquet of flowers at the same time fits into it. A typical example is Gogin’s tray “Flowers” (1943). Large flowers patterns, have in the center, and on the edges are smaller. Flowers and leaves create a convexity effect.
In this case, we are dealing with a “winged” tray, which has a figured shape with smooth, soft bends. Hence the complexity of the composition, the abundance of wriggling forms corresponding to the same shape of the tray. Flowers and leaves, located at the edges of the bouquet, are arranged in such a way that they make the viewer’s eyes move along the oval, consonant with the shape of the “winged” tray. Represented from four sides on the “wings” of the tray, the flowers that make up a part of the ornament perfectly distinguish the central bouquet.
The tray of the round form “Flowers” was created by Gogin in the 30s. The master gives a bouquet consisting of two or three flowers. The composition forms a garland moving in a circle. This movement is enhanced by small, bright color flashes along the edges of the bouquet.
Rectangular shape tray “Flowers”, created in the same years, allowed the master to fill with bouquets all the “field”.
But not only the impeccable possession of the composition constitutes the distinctive feature of Gogin’s skill. His trays can be recognized by a peculiar and intense color, bold and bright harmony. This becomes clear when you look at one of the best compositions of Gogin’s “Wildflowers” (1946). Here the perfect mastery of all techniques of Zhostovo painting affects.
So, in the tray “Wildflowers” the energetic glare perfectly enhances the effect of blossoming flowers. She also helps the master to highlight the illuminated parts of the composition, creates black and white contrasts.
The color scheme is based on a skillful combination of red, pink, purple and white spots. These effects are created due to the skillfully used gasket and enrich the painting very much. The binding combines all the elements of the composition into a single compact group.
In the early 50’s, Gogin creates a series of trays on light backgrounds. The methods of painting are substantially modified. So, the inscription of a bouquet, characteristic for trays with black backgrounds, is replaced by the desire to isolate the silhouette of the image. A light background is created by several layers of zinc white and lacquer. After drying, the tray is covered with a thin layer of paint. The methods of painting change as well. This is clearly seen in the tray “Flowers” (1951), where the master uses a warm-yellow background.
Flowers are given by the silhouette around the edges of the bouquet. Hence the spreading of forms. The drawing softens. Blink is almost not used, because it would violate the general soft color tone, subordinate to the background. The color scheme is remarkable for its exquisite refinement and freshness.
The source of inspiration of Zhostovo masters is primarily nature, carefully studied, typified, passed through the artistic consciousness of many generations of masters. We do not find in these works the exact “portraits” of flowers, as, for example, in the paintings of the masters of the Flemish and Dutch painting schools.
For an example, let’s turn to a small picture of Jan Bruegel Velvet “Flowers” (1615, Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts).
The picture is written on a wooden plate, there is a dark background, just like on the trays of Zhostov. But it is immediately clear that the flowers were before the eyes of the artist. He picked up a bouquet for a long time, placing it in a glass bottle of water, and then put the bottle on a small wooden table.
The artist delicately, in detail and in detail tells about each flower, analyzes its shape and features, examines each leaflet, depicts butterflies fluttering among the flowers. His attention is also attracted by the texture of the transparent glass, glare and reflexes on it, water in a vessel, drops of water on individual flowers. He puts the bottle at an angle to the viewer to make it voluminous. The bottle is firmly on the table. The artist creates a small story-miniature by means of painting. Something similar we find in the picturesque still lifes of the Russian artist Feodor Tolstoy.
We see something else in the approach to the image of flowers in Zhostov’s trays. Improvisational manner of painting, expresses the desire to convey some abstract flowers that adorn the tray.
A dynamic image of a large decorative scope, amazing immediacy and freshness is created.
Another source is the constant appeal of masters to the traditions of the past. It is no accident that at the Zhostovo factory there is a museum reflecting the history of the fishery. The current generation of masters who graduated from a special art school and school can study here magnificent examples created by masters since the XIX century. On the example of their works the skills of the young are sharpened.
But the most important is the fact of a living continuity of generations. During the years of Zhostov’s existence, whole dynasties have grown here: the Leontiefs, Kurzins, Kledovs, Loznovs, Vishnyakovs. This is the guarantee of the viability of the entire fishery, its further development. Masters of the older generation teach young artists. So, Gogin helped to develop the talent of his numerous students, among which BV Grafov, MP Saveliev, 3 A. Kledova, and E. P. Lapshin are most notable.
One of the strengths of the Zhostovo fishery is the absence of specified samples, standards.
Being artistic director of the fishery, Gogin introduced a lot of new and fresh into the learning process.
This mechanical method of training Gogin replaced free creative experimentation, studying nature, creativity of the best masters of Zhostov, revealing his own individuality of the student, discussing and jointly overcoming mistakes made by the beginning master.
And this is largely due to the fact that Gogin himself was directly involved in these artistic searches, which were always carried out collectively. After many searches, Gogin created a series of trays in 1949-1951, where floral painting was combined with light backgrounds. The most striking example of this is the tray “Bouquet of Flowers” (1951, Museum of Folk Art).
In contrast to the traditional Zhostovo painting, Gogin refused to accept the inscription of the bouquet into the background, and at the same time from the drawings and pegs that prominently highlighted the darkened parts of the painting. Each element of the painting clearly stood out against the light background of the tray. The painting is executed in a soft, juicy manner, with picturesque modeling of forms, with subtle transitions of tone to tone, colors to color. The general color scheme of the painting resembles wall porcelain and earthenware.
Thanks to Gogin, in 1956, the reception of a letter on mother-of-pearl inlay, which had not been used since 1916, was revived.
In 40-50-ies in Zhostov appeared a tendency to overload the composition, which added to the painting unusual for its splendor and diversity. Gogin managed to avoid extremes, to force masters to refuse excessive pomp in the design of trays. In the 1960s, at the Exhibition-Fair of folk art crafts in Moscow, all the trays from Zhostov were executed in the same style, the traditional carpal technique typical of the Zhostovo fishery.
Creativity Gogina teaches to preserve the features of the classic Zhostovo tray of the 1920s and 1930s: the interrelation of the painting with the shape of the tray, the laconicism of the flower bouquet, the finely found proportions of large and small flowers, the rhythm of color spots and main lines, the balance between realistic and conventional elements in floral composition.
The exhibition of art crafts “Podmoskovye” (1980) once again showed the timelessness of the traditions and artistry of Zhostov. In the works of numerous students of Gogin, such as BV Grafov, N. N. Goncharova, N. N. Mazhaev, E. P. Lapshin and others, along with traditional subjects and themes of Zhostovo paintings, high level of artistic quality of their works noticeably the desire to expand the range of artistic possibilities of painting, to saturate with modernity and at the same time preserve the poetry and charm of old trays of Zhostov.