Art crafts of Tajiks
Art crafts of Tajiks. Tajikistan – the most high-mountainous republic of Central Asia More than half of its territory is occupied by the mountain systems of the Pamir and Altai. Only 7% of the area is plains. The rivers flow from the northeast to the southwest. The south-western part of the country is a valley. In the valleys of the Amudarya river basin, on the banks of Vakhta, Tairsu, Yakhsu, Kyzylsu, agriculture and gardening have been developing since ancient times.
In the first half of the 1st millennium BC. e. the population of the territory of Tajikistan was part of the highly developed slave states – Bactria and Sogdiana. Bactria occupied the central southern and eastern part, and Sogdiana was located in the basin of the Zeravshan River.
The outstanding cultural achievements of its own art school have placed Bactria and Sogdiana in a number of the largest civilizations of the ancient world.
Zlatochekannye products of masters of Bactria were known in many countries. How good were these works of jewelry art, we can imagine the objects (and there are more than 200), found at the end of the last century in the so-called Amudarya treasure, which, unfortunately, is now in the British Museum, as well as the richest treasure of Fullola, discovered in 1966 in Afghanistan.
Near the ancient farmers, residents of trade and craft towns, peacefully coexisting, lived nomadic tribes – “tours with fast horses.” This is the Saki, as they are called in the Persian sources, or the Scythians – from the Greeks. The Greek historians describe the Scythians as “the most fair and just people in the world.” Nomadic tribes led a natural exchange with farmers, acquiring luxury goods from them. The legendary king of the Turanians was Afrasiab, in honor of which, in our time, an archaeological site was named – the remains of the ancient capital of Sogdnaia – Marakanda – the predecessor of Samarkand.
In distant countries they transported lazurite from Sogd. Bactria had stable ties with Iran and Greek cities. At that time, products from Baltic amber and cowri – Indian Ocean shells
The epos of the epic of those times have survived to this day in the oral work of the Tajiks: the hero of the ancient Kavat, the king of the Turans of Afrasiab.
Three thousand years separate the art of modern Tajiks – direct descendants of Sogdians and bactrian from the culture of ancient farmers. A great place in the artistic-shaped structure of folk art is occupied by the images of the Avesta. In an indirect way, through a certain symbolism amazingly staunch, through the millennia they have reached Anette “foundation”, the combination of legends, cosmogonic views, historical facts, customs and mythological legends, information on medicine and cults is an important source for studying the culture of Iranian-speaking peoples. The lands of Tajikistan are the cradle of Zoroastrianism, the religion of fire worshipers, whose main provisions are embodied in the Avesta. Written sources of the Avesta appeared not earlier than IV century BC. e. Reading and studying them in the second half of the 18th century, the French Oriental scholar Anquetil Duperron devoted his life, which became a feat.
As EE Kuzmina writes in her interesting study, the world view of ancient Tajiks was dualistic: light and darkness, birth and death, cold and heat were in constant struggle, replacing each other with eternal movement. Man did not separate himself from nature, and in the art of the people the great place is occupied by the theme of the reincarnation of man into the beast, the beast into the natural elements. At the same time, the part replaced the whole, and for the designation of the bird, its wings were sufficient, to designate the ram – its horns. On this principle of partial magic arose the first artistic generalization – ornament.
From the ancient art of the Bactrians, the Tajiks retained the type of dwelling – the house, in the interiors of which there were niches of the Bactrians – cupboards for dishes. Artistic traditions can be traced in jewelry art, fabric manufacture, embroidery and ceramics. The image of a two-humped camel, now called Bactrian, is found in the art of the Tajiks and is not known to other Central Asian peoples. The name of the month of the first plowing – this most important event in the life of a farmer – zhamond, zhamondintsy, which Birunn cites in his calendar, coincides with the name of the same month – the zhimadanch of the Sogdians.
Many useful information and artistic traditions preserved the memory of the people from those ancient times.
In the VI-IV centuries BC. e. the territory of Tajikistan fell under the rule of Persia, in the IV century they were occupied by the armies of Alexander the Great, from the III century they became part of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom, in which Hellenic artistic traditions were strengthened. In the I century BC. e. and until the IV century AD. e. In the Kushan period, there was Buddhism. In the VI century, the early feudal state was formed – the Turkic kaganate.
Until the 8th century there existed a beautiful ancient medieval city – Penjikent. His excavations now give the richest material on the history of the artistic culture of the Tajiks.
Since the second half of the VII century AD. e. Arab expansion begins in Central Asia. Subordinated to the Arab Caliphate in the VIII century, the Tajik people felt the strict prohibitions of Islam. However, folk art, contrary to all established canons, carried joyous pagan and Hellenistic art through the millennia. Ornaments of Islamic mosques, carved columns of the 9th and 10th centuries from Obburdon, niches of buildings have preserved to us images of people, vegetation, birds and camels, palmettes and suns – solar signs of fire worshipers.
In the 10th century, within the framework of the state of the Samanids,
the process of education of the Tajik people. XVII and XVIII century were a period of feudal fragmentation
The greatest development was achieved in Tajikistan, the artistic crafts of ceramics, fabric manufacture, embroidery, and jewelry.
Ceramics. Ceramics is the most ancient kind of folk applied art that has preserved beautiful traditions.
The main methods of decorating ceramic vessels developed in the XI-XII centuries. The oldest artistic craft of making ceramic ware is in southern Tajikistan. And the oldest, most interesting kind of it is the production without the potter’s wheel of the Gumbulak stucco molding, which is still practiced only by women. Its centers are Kulyab, Egid, Faizabad. Light golden clay vessels of a small cozy size, as it were, radiate the warmth of the hearth. On the yellowish solar surface of the vessels there is a simple, asymmetric wrist-like loose painting painted with a red and brown engobed (diluted clay), quite large in relation to the size of the vessels. A light touch draws curls, spirals, paws, wavy strips, flowers. The forms are squat, round, dense, with stucco tips, handle edges. This is a jug – aphtab, a vessel with a lid – a cask, bowls, bowls, dishes. Today in this fishery there are well-known masters – D. Shoeva, X. Zoirova and others.
This ceramics is close to the special plasticity and ancient character of the images of Tajik artistic craft in Ura-Tube. Here, the production of molded toys with paintings is organized – these are dogs, goats and dragons with large bulging eyes, tower-shaped horns and large ears, open mouths, painted in red. Points made with a stick, and strips of red and blue paint are located on the whitened surface of the clay. The image of the dragon – the call of rain – is associated with ancient beliefs. Known myth of the struggle of the hero Keresaspi with the dragon for the return of fertility land. Fantastic images of ancient legends to this day live in the toys of modern masters from Ura-Tube – M. Kadyrov, S. Rasulov, H. Mukumov, G. Khalilov. And in this are seen the echoes of the “animal style” of past eras.
Later centers of irrigation, glazed ceramics were formed. Their products are characterized by relief ornamentation, light carpentry, and sometimes using a stamp. Ancient Tajik ceramics XVII! century pleases the eye with a beautiful bright underglaze painting depicting lush, fantastic flowers.
The centers of irrigation ceramics are the village of Chorku in the Isfara River valley, Karatag, Ura-Tyube, Khojent.
And today here, in the western valleys of Tajikistan, make a sonorous soundtrack in color, beautiful combinations of blue, green and brown colors. The brush slides along the surface of the vessel easily and freely, without seeking symmetry and order, without following the strictly form of the object. Hence the special man-madeness and uniqueness of each vessel. The vegetative ornament prevails, it densely lies on a white shard. Sometimes a rather deep engraving is done under the painting. Watering flows into the grooves of the picture, and the ceramics becomes even more sonorous in color, deep saturated tones. This technique gives the painting additional decorative qualities, vividness and timidity of the painting.
Many talented artists are developing today the beautiful traditions of Tajik colored ceramics. This S. Sahibov, whose painting is exquisite, with a beautiful raster, Sh. Shadyev – he builds a picture medallion, more strictly, and many others.
Weaving. The same fine, having the oldest traditions of the kind of artistic crafts of Tajiks is the production of silk, semi-silk and cotton fabrics. Woolen fabrics were not made, nor were flax. The production of artisan fabrics was concentrated in Khojent (Leninabad), Ura-Tube, Gissar Tkani-aloca, adras – made of pure silk, and such as bekasab, brocade, velvet, satin, were semi-silk, on a cotton basis.
Particularly beautiful were silk abra fabrics. They were called so from the word “abr” – a cloud. With a thread of yellow threads and a duck of red thread, the weave gave out a divorce, the tide of which had an orange tone. Sometimes the thread was up to seven colors, and such fabrics were very beautiful airy gentle colors, fantastically rich shades. These fabrics were very expensive.
Very beautiful cotton fabric, dyed “Gulbast”. It is painted in places, with the exception of circles with uneven edges, which result from the fact that these places are tied when dyed and the paint does not penetrate there.
Cotton light fabrics turned into beautiful colored heels with the help of stamps – kalyb, made of wood. Tajik heel has a beautiful long tradition of art. Heels are made with tablecloths, napkins, bedspreads, wall panels. The drawing consists of large and small medallions framed with dentate and vegetal ornamentation. The pattern has a golden or dark red saturated velvety color, the decorativeness of which is achieved through the skillfully prepared vegetable natural dyes.
A Tajik from Darvaz was dressed in a red satin dress, wearing a different, light one. From under the dress striped trousers are made, sewn from bekasab. Over the dress is a robe – kaltacha, with a remarkable bright embroidery very large rosettes.
A woman from Karategin wore a dress and a satin gown, which was also embroidered with large bright rosettes-circles. These circles, yellow and white with a blue and green core, are located throughout the front on the red background of satin. On this flaming field, embroidery seems to burn with its sunny color.
Very good white dresses from Kulyab. The white fabric is embroidered with colored embroidery, which adorns the sleeves, chest and hem. The embroidery pattern is large and consists of colored rosettes and stylized leaves. Such dresses – kurtsan chakan – were sometimes embroidered with silk.
By her work, patience, skill, her talent, the masters of modest fabrics turned into precious beautiful clothes, embroidering them with large bright patterns, without the fear of colored silks embroidering on the red flaming background.
Jewelry Art. Supplement to the female costume were jewelry.
By the beginning of the 19th century, large centers of artistic metal processing – Khodzhent and Ura-Tube – have survived to this day in Tajikistan. They made mostly dishes, weapons and jewelry.
The richest decorative, bright, expressive and complex in technology and compositions are Tajik jewelry.
In the 12th century poem “Shahname” refers to the Tajik: Glittered like a star, it has necklaces,
Bracelets and earrings, a crown around a chela,
And all the garden was blooming …
Jewelry of northern Tajikistan is especially elegant.
The main decoration of the townspeople of the large northern cities is the forehead jewelery, which has a slotted part resembling a diadem that rises above the forehead – “koshtillo”. The head part of this decoration, gilded and with a notch, is similar to closed curved thick brows. From her on the forehead fall pendants consisting of pearls, corals and gilded metal leaves – “bargak”. The decoration itself is richly colored with gilding, silver, coral, turquoise, colored glass, pearls. In the center of the diadem is a large shamrock, strewn with stones and turquoise.
The chest ornament of Tajiks of flat areas – “haikal” – is a complex structure consisting of numerous chains rhythmically alternating with silver plates, covered with scandium, stones, turquoise. These plates have pendants made of beads and corals. On the lower edge of the work is decorated with a massive oval plate with pendants made of metal, coral and pearls. On the sides this decorative plate was also decorated with black silk tassels.
Interesting is the star-shaped temporal decoration – “kadjak”. The same word is called and curl curl on the cheek. The product is an asymmetric composition of silver, the main ornament of which is an asterisk of metal and pearls, turned forward and lying on the cheek.
In Ur-Tyube of northern Tajikistan, a jeweler is known – “mochi-tilly” – nalobno-temporal decoration. It is a compound in one round composition of three month-like figures with a somewhat elongated middle part. It turns out a shamrock of three months. This gilt medallion composition is decorated with turquoise and corals. The shape of the object is framed by an expressive scan with a string.
All jewelry works are designed for movement, swaying at a pace, sparkling metal, sparkling stones – all this creates an image in which both light liveliness and a fascinating impression of a miracle.
The solar corona – the diadem, the moon crescent moon, the moonlight of pearls and mother-of-pearl – in all connection with nature, its reverence.
Rings are worn on all fingers except the third. The ring on the third finger was distinguished by the washings of the dead. No people are not allowed to wear rings on the third finger.
A variety of earrings, and each area has its differences in this kind of jewelry: rural type – Asht, Upper Zeravshan, Nurata. Experienced influence of the big city – hozhenzhensky, hurray-tuba, Samarkand-Bukhara. Asht – rounded lines, soft outlines, lyrical, plastic; Upper Zeravshan – modest, graceful, elongated proportions. Adjoining them are the Ura-Tubinskie – strict in design, somewhat massive, generalized silhouette lines, the same Kulyab’s – simple, massive.
They are very different from them urban: kozhzhenskie – luxurious, filled with ornament, lush, rich, Bukhara – with curving flexible lines. In them creeping vegetative ornament, refined and thin. Samarkand consist of plates, which are accompanied by thin light chains. Plates have rich black and engraved ornamentation. Garskie – starry, sparkling, in them there is a lot of small uzoroch’ya. Purek – transparent-light, delicate, elegant, noisy with numerous thin pendants, trembling.
The jewelry art of the Tajiks is an outstanding page of the art of the peoples of Central Asia. It has the richest artistic traditions, the highest craftsmanship and delicate taste. For modern jewelers, it is a well of virtuosic techniques, the ability to use materials, decorative forms and colors.
In ceramics, jewelry art, embroidery, fabric production – the highest achievements of Tajik folk art. It amazes with the richness of ornaments, bright color, a harmonious combination of form and decor.