Artistic crafts of Ukraine
Artistic crafts of Ukraine
Ukrainian nationality was formed on the basis of the Pto-Slavic tribes of the Dnieper and the Dniester. As a single ethnic unit, it crystallizes from the 15th century.
In the context of the consideration of folk arts and crafts in Ukraine, it should be emphasized that for centuries the close interaction of professional and folk art continued, and this interaction and mutual enrichment had an equally strong orientation and in that other direction.
There were many reasons why, but above all, that even the most distant village was raging and some times involved in the historical significance of the event and could not miss their liveliest way through the world of their ideas.
The Mongol Igo of the XIII century was the hardest for Ukraine in the 13th century. In the 14th century Ukrainian lands were under the control of Lithuania and Poland. The hard part was given to the lands of the Transnistrian region, which felt the hardships of the war with the Turkish conquests1yelymns.
With the intensification of the struggle for national liberation, the activation of the processes of education of the Ukrainian people, the Ukrainian people’s culture is even more amplified by the popular beginning, the Ukrainianization of the most canonical themes and plots.
The lands of Ukraine, its villages and cities with magnificent architecture, workshops and manufactories literally did not know the respite, torn by numerous foreign contenders for domination. Already in the sixteenth century, Poland strengthened its promotion to Volyn and the Dnieper. An intensified Catholicization of the population began. Again, already in the seventeenth century, a powerful wave of commitment to the past, to its national traditions rises. Ukrainian enlighteners exaltation of folk culture as a guardian of national dignity, on nional autonomy in the spiritual sphere. In 1825, shortly before the welcome reunion with Russia, enlightened Ukrainians called for Russia to defend: “Ukraine will die among the Poles, Uniates and the Cursed heretics.”
The complex historical situation has contributed to attracting active public attention to folk culture, tolerance for the penetration of popular images into all kinds of professional and even church canonical art. The images of the guys, the species and the young people penetrate the frescoes and the icons. Perceived in the 17th century, the Catholic Baroque is so much altered in Ukraine, so freed from its inherent exaltation, acquiring the features of light tranquility, harmony and readily, freely read plastics, that with the full right went the history of art, not as a Western European Baroque in Ukraine, but as a peculiar ukrainian baroque The Ukrainian Baroque achieved the highest achievements in the original Ukrainian wooden architecture of the late XVII-XVIII centuries. They are amazing in artistic expressiveness and bright folk style, in the emotionality and realism of the painting of the wooden village church of the Spirit of Peretych in 1620.
Thus, the brilliant development of the national artistic crafts of Ukraine, besides many economic, natural and historical reasons, was based on the growth of national self-consciousness, the viability of national ideals.
Until the beginning of the 20th century Ukraine was an agrarian country. Agriculture was the basis of employment classes. In the development of fisheries, a big role was played by blacksmithing, pottery, weaving.
Folk artistic crafts of rural Ukraine are closely linked to certain regions. The most important of them are the forestland of Polesie from Sumshny to Volyn: Sumy. Chernigov, Kiev, Rivne, partly Zhytomyr and Volyn regions. Podolia is a hilly plain, including the Cherkasy, Vinnytsya, Khmelnytsky and eastern parts of the Ternopil region. South – the boundless steppes of the Transdniestrian plains. The foothills of the Carpathians and the Transcarpathians are the Lviv and Ivano-Frankivsk regions.
The main centers of pottery production from time immemorial become Kiev region. Poltava region, Chernigov region, Podolia and Transcarpathia.
Vasilkovskaya ceramics is typical for Kyiv region, the peculiarity of which is a large, colorful multicolored smear of a crucible ornament with a white contour. Also used is a pinkish smear that has color transitions from darker to light.
It is precisely in Chernigov region that beautiful, with centuries-old artistic traditions, is made of black smoke-like ceramics with lush linear decoration
In the Vinnitsa region, on the Podolia, ceramics were painted with a small colored large painting on a dark green or brownish-red background. Here the founding centers are Bubnovka and Krzyshenki. In the ceramics of the masters of these villages there is a certain color and ornamental restraint in contrast to the multicolored ceramics of Kiev region.
The most famous pottery production of Ukraine are the villages of Poltava Region.
In the Poltava region, excellent ceramics were made in Khomutze and mainly in Oposna. Pottery was simpler in the village of Khomutets, forms and paintings were slightly more coarse, although the folk bases, especially in figured vessels, were felt more strongly. The cute, funny lei sits on his hind legs like a dog, his mouth is open, he is a beautiful pink mane in curls made of spiral of clay. The image is naive and good-natured, the color of the vessel is modest, monochrome – brown.
Ceramic Oposhni is distinguished by a great variety. In production, a significant proportion of sculptural vessels, which have an increased decorative. In large quantities, cumans, barrels, candlesticks, pitchers and other utensils were made. The products of this fishery have such striking stylistics that they are always easy to recognize. The fishery has gone a long way to acquisitions and, unfortunately, some losses.
The products of the Ochshnian masters of the 18th and 19th centuries are diverse in many museum collections. In 1894, the masters were united into the Oposhnia pottery workshop, and in 1897 a Ceramic Arts and Industrial School named after N. Gogol was established in Mirgorod for the training of potters.
Over time, the list of items decreases, the colorfulness of the painting increases, the sculptural plastic becomes more complicated, the products themselves increase significantly in size. Their appearance becomes more gift, already far from everyday.
In the 1940s and 1950s, this process was only anticipated. In this period, D. Golovko and O. Zheleznyak became the classics of the Ochshnian fishery. In their works, an understanding of plastic material is felt. The shapes of the products were compact enough, expressive, deep water saturation, which was organically combined with the generalized plastic. But already in later works by D. Golovko a certain woodiness of the dry form of the form, the complexity of color and the fragmentation of the silhouette appear. In this it is impossible not to see the aspirations of the machine-tool of the work, the exhibitionTM, which obviously prevails over practical expediency.
In the 1970s, in the sculptural works of G. Poshivailo, they also felt the desire to get away from the actual applied nature of everyday things, the search for new means of artistic expressiveness. In his works, the dynamics of the forms is emphasized, the emphasis on the expressiveness of the part is emphasized by the general impression: if this is the lion’s mane, then curls might be powerful, large, tightly twisted, the tail bent over by an elastic arc, the muzzle lost the expression of naive good-natured nature, became even more aggressive. Sculptural vessels become almost easel small plastic, in contrast to those simple, harmonious and expedient household things that we know over the past decades.
The craving of the master to reflect contemporaneity finds expression in the variety and individuality of his own creative handwriting. In this respect, undoubtedly, the experience of Ukrainian ceramic sculpture of the 1920s is useful, when in works created by, for example, the remarkable master Ivan Gonchar, a deep sense of the present was present and at the same time the traditional folk character of the images was preserved. Thus, in his plastic composition “Demidovye Vareniki” (apparently the version of the famous “Demyanova Uchi”), in the plastic “Budenovets”, the scene “Pan with the Dog” and others, with all the contemplation of the plot, the fullness of the works with a personal attitude to reality was not lost and connection with folk art, which distinguishes the best works of Ukrainian ceramists. Such works, despite the seriousness of the theme, still did not pass into the category of easel art, since it was primarily a toy of clay, fun.
In recent years, we can be pleased to note the successes in the work of the master N. Pishchenko. Toys created by him: riders, cockroaches, lamb, cute, crazy turkeys are distinguished by features of traditional Ukrainian folklore. With a wicked smile, the master of a pompous important saddle sits with a gaiety seriousness in the face of the dog. The game moment always differed from the Ukrainian folk toy and plastic. The works of the poshivailo Gavril Nikiforovich’s family, his son and grandson, are now attracted by a true understanding of folk traditions, an appeal to the origins of the national heritage.
The Kosovo ceramic industry of Ukraine, which is located in Transcarpathia, in the Ivano-Frankivsk region, is world-famous. Potatoes with engraved pattern on a white shingles and painting, luminous transparent, with a thick yellow-green glaze and the inclusion of a small amount of brown are characteristic for this fishery.
In the past, there were plenty of dishes here: bowls, plates, vases, pitchers, four-handles, clay painted toys and stove-tufts, which often contained a complex plot on the themes of the day.
A characteristic feature of the Kosovo ceramics, in addition to the color scheme, was the image of lush herbs and flowers, surrounded by birds, reindeer, riders and all kinds of other characters. In the pattern is sometimes introduced and geometric ornament in the form of a grid, triangles and sockets. Large patterns are relatively independent with the forms – the pattern passes from the bottom of the plate to the side or from the body vase to the neck, breaking, without following literally plastic shapes.
Kosovo ceramics is unique, there is no other such fishery, and it is not by chance that these products with their bright joyous painting attracted attention at the international exhibition in Ostend in 1959, where the works of two great craftsmen of the fishery were shown by Grigory Tsvilik and Pavlina Tsvlyk. The tradition of this ceramics, rather small variability for a long time, does not prevent it from being extremely modern in our day.
In Kosovo a lot of toys were made: it’s grasshoppers, cockroaches, soldiers, soldiers and many other decorative items, with everyday details, fun little things.
Artistic wood processing. One of the most well-known centers of wood processing in Ukraine is Poltava Region. By the time of the establishment of Soviet power in Poltava province, several thousands of families worked in this truly popular industry, and worked all year round and sold many products to zemstvos and markets.
In the Poltava region in the 1920s and 1930s a lot of small wood was made of wood. We know the figurines “Woman with Makiitra”, “Holiday in the club”, the cartoon “Cossack with a paddle in a boat”. All onn differ realism in the treatment of images and great skill. In the distant past, there were Kiev and Carpathian forests. In the Kiev region, besides traditional household items, a lot of small sculptures were made, especially during the post-revolutionary period. The compositions of the 1930s – The Exit to the Coswitz, the Collective Farm Festival and many others have the same distinctive features as the Poltava: a fairly strong folk tradition in the prewar period and the transition to some post-war period of post-warism, which was largely overcome already in the 1970s.
Artistic merits distinguish the work of the family dynasty Shkryblyakov, Korpankhov, the master A. Ishchenko and many, many others. Attracts a special architectonics of their work, the exact construction of a symmetrical decoration on the surface. It is in this rhythm, devoid of significant accents, and there is the main decorative quality of works, the power of artistic expressiveness and the specificity of this art.
Pissanki The scriptures were made everywhere in Ukraine, but precisely in Transcarpathia, the traditional and most ancient geometric ornamentation, which binds this art with embroidery and wood carvings. Transcarpathian Easter eggs do in many villages – in Kosmach, Zamagorov, Yavorov, Vyzhenka.
Many museums collect collection of Easter eggs – these masterpieces of folk art of Ukraine. Among the first is the remarkable collection of the Museum of Art of Hutsulitsyn in Kolomy.
Beautiful carpets of Kosovo, as well as pysanka with geometric ornament. This ornament has its own peculiarities: the edges of geometric shapes – stepped rhombuses seem to stratify, similar to the rainbow ray, creating a beautiful spectacle of flickering color of the surface of the overflows of shades of color.
Carpets of central Ukraine are distinguished by lush floral decor. Such colorful vegetative patterns of carpet patterns are characteristic of the Poltava and Kiev regions.
For Podolia typical rigid geometric patterns of carpets. In them, rather, the community with Asia Minor and Balkan carpets. Such geometric character of carpets weave in the Vinnytsya and Ternopil regions, for them, as a rule, typical octangular socket and kim with the same socket, but somewhat smaller size.
Chernigov carpets more than any other, have a free, unobstructed arrangement of floral decor. These carpets were weaved mainly in Degtyaryah.
Ukrainian carpets always have a clean and gentle range of colors. They were so beautiful with their paints that Catherine II issued a special decree on “finding a paint of a worm” in the Poltava province for palace needs. In the Poltava region were made and beautiful patterned striped carpets. They had their differences. The fact is that in any striped carpet it is customary to weave even-figured ornamental figures that make up the pattern. In the Ukrainian carpet everything is different – the rhythm of the carpet is based on a combination of ornamental figures, different in size and in color. No one does not repeat the other, but within each band they form the balanced masses of the pattern relative to the background, which calms the composition, makes it harmonious. A similar technique for decoration of a carpet requires a great deal of skill, and this is all the more striking, as it is known that the craftsmen did not make pre-templates and weave them in memory. The forms of ornaments, the color of the figures – the elements of the pattern, their size is freely varied: the background is almost non-existent, as if geometric shapes appear. One is clearer, clearer, the other is almost dissolved in the color of the background, since it is closely matched to it by paints, the third with blurred edges, and the fourth with a straightening contour. Kayma in such a carpet is practically absent. In another type of carpet in the same area there is a wide rim, even in width even in the field. But in such a carpet, all woven hexagon sockets vary in shades of color. Such a technique allows even a geometric Ukrainian carpet to avoid the simplicity of the drawing. The almost elusive variety of individual motifs of a decorative pattern gives the carpet an inexpressible charm. And not only in one carpet such a variety of motifs, but also each carpet individually does not repeat another, they are all different and executed with extraordinary fantasy.
The skill of Ukrainian carpenters is inconceivable. Documents on the most difficult position of carpet holders in the pre-revolutionary past are recalled. As contemporaries wrote, in a year it was necessary “to feed more than forty rubles for forty rubles”. The weavers burst the skin on the fingers. In the documents of the craftsmen and craftsmen, they were not otherwise named as “such a niece” or “such a niece”. And in the woven carpets of them with a bright light color there was eternal spring, reigning harmony and poetry.
Nowadays we are pleased with the great successes of the Ukrainians carpet weaving Master L. Tovstukha – the main painter of the Reshetyl Factory – recently completed the “Spring” carpet, in which the tenderness of the multicolored shimmering background, and the spring flowering of nature. A slightly different color in the image of his own “Summer” carpet: here is a bright multicolor, solved in a hot call of gamma-flowers, berries, fruits, birds-everything in a luxurious ornament.
Weaving and embroidery. In addition to carpets, woven in everywhere in Ukraine home fabrics for the manufacture of clothes and linen, for the decoration of the house. Fabrics of flax and hemp were manufactured in large quantities in Degtyaryah, Reshetilovka, Dikanka, Sorochintsy, Shishak. The croupier of the Chernigov region was famous for fabrics with patterned stars, surrounded by squares of a darker color. Plain Ukrainian fabrics have a lot of variants, but they are united by a checkered rhythm, a small size of a drawing and a multi-colored. In Degtyaryah there was a particularly beautiful chess pattern of interwoven threads in the finest grid of drawing.
Previously, candles and candlesticks were wrapped in handkerchiefs. In memory of those who left, they were hanged over the grave. There is a legend of 1599 about Samuel Kishke, who in Turkish captivity kept a handkerchief as a memory of his native land.
Suit. In the villages of Ukraine until now, there is a national costume with a predominance of bright color. Materials for making fabrics from which clothes were sewn were wool, hemp and flax. Women wore shirts, beautifully embroidered, uncut skirts – plagons, pillows, as well as aprons and varied, depending on the age of women, hats. More often, these were towel-shaped head-dresses like the Russian plate-obrush. In the Kiev region preferred cloth-cap, decorated with embroidery. The girls wore veins. Moreover, in Bukovyna celebratory headgear for girls were feathers with feathers of feathers, probably, such a dress was associated with ancient pagan notions. For winter time, fur coats and suites were used. The costume was decorated with beads, necklaces, colored woven patterned belts. From the nineteenth century, gerdani-buoys from factory-made porcelain and glass beads were widespread.
Shirts, shirts often embroidered with smooth sutures.
Poltava shirts were distributed with modest, monochrome, more often grayish threads on white or white on white embroidery. In Volyn region red-blue with a white skirt is beautifully combined with a white shirt embroidered on shoulders and on a collar with red seams on a white canvas. Especially the juicy, bright dense embroidery of shirts is different Kiev region. For Bukovina is characterized by a bright multicolored saturated embroidery with color red, black, yellow and blue thread. In Vinnitsa region, the exquisitely beautiful exquisite shirt embroidery is unusually beautiful: one black thread on a white canvas or black with a thick cherry blossom in white. Lviv embroidery is a small, solid embroidery with squares. Especially polychrome was embroidery in the Carpathian region. Here, women wore pleated shirts with cuts on their back or shoulders, linen skirts with front insert, apron, sleeveless sleeve. Sleeves are richly embroidered, finished with leather, fur, pomponchiki, metal lining. Hutsul men’s winter clothes with a suede top on a mexuette have colorful brushes on the back, fur trim, colorful plant embroidery, decorative buttons.
The folk light ideal of beauty, embodied in Ukrainian clothes, is connected with nature, its flowering, herbs, and birds. Ukrainian costume was especially revered. And even on the icon the godfather was often depicted in a national costume, with beads – threads of beads.
But if the embroidery, meanwhile, rather mediocrely and somewhat reservedly transmitted the motives of nature, for example, it was in carpets, then the most complete, luxurious Ukrainian nature was reflected in the wall paintings.
Painting In all its fullness, leisurely, freely poured out the emotional feeling of the craftsman in the paintings of the hut. The painted huts were everywhere in Ukraine, especially in the Khmelnitsky, Odesa, Dnipropetrovsk regions, except Poltava region, where the houses did not whiten. They signed outside – friezes under the roof, around the windows, inside the walls, ovens, friezes under the ceiling.
And in the barns, and on the paper, the paintings in those years were modest, more likely to be a line than a stain, a pale, delicate color, with a great sense of measure. There were a lot of paintings in the hut: both the walls, the stove, and the next, and the hide, the bench, the wardrobe, the shelf were painted, but nothing was screaming, everything was surprisingly harmonious and proportionate to the patterned textiles that decorated the house.
In the postwar period decorations began to grow in paintings. The drawings were mainly made on paper, like decorative panels of large shapes. In the painting became the dominant stain of intense bright color. True, there are often and very modest works. Such works are N. Belokon. Its flowers with fluffy leaves, similar to chrysanthemums or dahlias, are almost voluminous in the nature of painting, but the composition is balanced, harmonious and not colorful.
In recent years, the coryphaeons of Pistrikov’s paintings were Grigory Dogka, Tatyana Pat, Galina Pavlenko-Chernichenko. Folklore character of the images is well documented in such popular subjects as “Kazak Mamay”, “Gypsy”, “Natalka-Poltavka” and others. In the works of the last time, the wonderful master of Maria Prymachenko, whose cycle is called “People to joy”, reveals the whole meaning of her work: she creates joy for people. She does a lot of work
scenes of famous songs, fairy tales, in which animals, birds, lush nature are presented. Sometimes a master will call the character of his work so that he himself does not know who he is – this “rubbish”. And he is interesting, nobody looks like, scary little and merry.
The works of the Petrikovs are national in nature, they are inherent in the features of Ukrainian folk art – a bright good-natured personality, humor, a little child’s structure of a pure soul, close to nature, just as soft, kind and sunny.
In the last years in Petrikov began to make undergarment painting on a tree. But in this new quality, the painting somewhat loses: it is deeper in color. There is no harmony of light rays that were on a white background.
Hut – a dwelling of a rural Ukrainian citizen – a good self. In the hut there are colorful patterns of carpets, embroidered towels, patterned curtains and vivid folk paintings, painted chests of hide, simple glass gut items, irrigation ceramics and wooden carved utensils, colorful wall paintings. Sublimated smelling dry grasses and flowers.
And although in the last decades the life of the Ukrainian countryside has changed considerably, many new modern objects of factory production have been introduced, nor do they determine the appearance of the cottage, which retains its unique national color.
Folk art has the most direct impact on the appearance of the modern Ukrainian art industry – the manufacture of articles made of porcelain, earthenware, textiles, carpets, glass. His influence is noticeable in the monumental art. Traditions of stove tile are traced in the works of Omeljan Zheleznyak, performed for the Kiev hotel “Dnepr”. The folk traditions are characteristic of all areas of creativity of contemporary Ukrainian artists.
The world of Ukrainian artistic crafts continues to remain holistic, having a deep national identity, largely determined by deep folk traditions.