Decorations Buryt. The art of metal processing occupied a large place in Buryat art. Jewelry, a variety of household utensils, religious objects were performed by craftsmen-blacksmiths. Buryat, Trans-Baikal and Baikal, “white” blacksmiths), using a variety of materials and techniques for processing, rose to the creation of genuine works of jewelry.
Ornaments made of metals and stones were common in Buryatia everywhere. They were worn both in the Baikal area and in Transbaikalia. The division of the Buryats in the Transbaikal (eastern) and Baikal (western) regions in the XIX century Definition of an uncertain level, including in other areas. Noticeable differences existed in clothes and ornaments, whose originality was largely preserved by Transbaikalian Buryats.
National Buryat clothing is characterized by the completeness and clear completion of the silhouette. The constructive basis of her is a long robe, which the girls and men girded with a belt or sash. Bright identity and super decorative qualities, first of all, jewelry of women’s folk costume. Women’s clothing was complemented by a sleeveless jacket. The main element of decorative dressing is color. Stripes of bright fabrics of white, yellow, blue, blue, red, purple, burgundy, green and other colors, as well as fur, which we could use to choose the right color scheme.
The color solution of the clothes of the Baikal Buryats is restrained and not so bright, although the cut and types of decoration are more diverse. In addition to the colored stripes, the clothes were decorated with embroidery, braid, they were lined along the sides with silver, sometimes gold coins or mother-of-pearl buttons.
Structurally simple clothes were complemented with intricate and bright jewelry. Original metal products with massive silver pendants, large embossed embossing and filigree, characteristic sonorous color combinations, with national Buryat costume are a single whole in composition and style.
The festive outfit of Buryat women was quite heavy due to the abundance of jewelry. In addition to the basic ornaments, widespread everywhere (rings, rings, earrings, beads, bracelets), they wore specific chest, head, belt ornaments, various braid suspensions, traditional for certain territories, mainly Transbaikalia.
The main festive headdress of Buryat women is a velvet or silk bandage on a birch bark with a generally rising front. On the fabric were sewn three rows of beads of decreasing size from corals, amber, lapis lazuli, turquoise, forming a colorful color combination. To the bandage often attached typical for the Buryat temporal pendants with coral beads, which, framing the face, descended on the chest. Sometimes this decoration from above was trimmed with sable fur or otter.
The national female headdress – a cap made of colored cloth with a fur fringe – was decorated with a vertex consisting of a silver cone-shaped body with a round colored stone on top made entirely by hand, which explains the variety of variants of this decoration.
A very intricate headdress was a variety of pendants and chains, suspended from two copper or gold sticks, which were horizontally plugged into braids at the level of the ears. Here, too, velvet silver, coral and colored stones were fastened to coverings. Nakosniki served as a decoration for the woman’s hairdress, and also were included in the chest set.
The breast ornament of the Buryat woman is a composition complex of various elements, united in a single developed whole. One of these ornaments, common among the individual tribes of the Eastern Buryats, consisted of a variety of shapes and sizes of pendants, patterned rosettes, consistently fastened together. Each suspension had its own artistic and decorative solution, it was decorated with corals and colored stones. Together with a set of chains of complex weaving, they formed a kind of necklace. With long three-centimeter hooks, the necklace was attached to the base of the braids behind the ears, hanging freely on the chest, it rhythmically swayed while walking and made a melodious ringing.
Widely distributed in Transbaikalia was a breast ornament, the main elements of which were a massive silver, more often rectangular box and a large round medallion amulet for storing Buddhist prayer. The decoration was ornamented with zoomorphic and floral ornament and elements of Buddhist symbolism, made bas-relief chasing with the use of engraving. The gilding of the protruding details, the matte finish of the background, the combination of high and low relief, intensifying the play of chiaroscuro, made the product more decorative. The decoration had many options, differing in the variety of forms and compositions. A characteristic element of breast pendants were pendants with a coin in a wide filigree frame. Often they ended with a bunch of silver toiletries: a toothpick, a cleaning cloth, tweezers to remove splints, etc., and a small bell. These small elegant objects were suspended on tetrahedral chains of Buryat weaving.
The same items of utilitarian use, including keys, were part of the girdle decoration (sanshurghi), which was attached to the belt of a male or female suit and consisted of a circular decorated plate (often in the form of a lion), connected from two convex halves. Such a badge was often decorated with enamel, inserts of colored stone or chasing. Special elegance is attached to these ornaments by graceful, elastic chains of various weaving with tightly fitting mobile links.
In jewelry drills an essential role is played by coins. Since the beginning of the XIX century, the Buryat girl was wearing a necklace of silver coins of ruble denomination, set in copper plates with a loop at one end. Between the coins, coral was strung. In the middle of the XIX century, gold coins began to be used. They wore these necklaces in one, two or three rows. Widespread were beads from corals, bracelets, earrings, rings. The bracelets could be round or flat sections, smooth or decorated with chased engraving, colored stones.
An effective reception of decoration was the gilding of the surface of the bracelet around the colored inserts. This strengthened the color of the decoration. In one bracelet, stones of different colors could be used, but in a limited number (three to five inserts). The bracelets were made open, without locks and with locks. In Transbaikalian bracelets, the most common lock looked like a simple safety device – a hinge loop thrown on the ledge of the other end of the bracelet. The lock of the West-Buryat bracelets consisted of two globular parts, one behind the other and being at the same time the main decorative element of the decoration.
A wide variety of artistic decisions and processing techniques were distinguished by earrings, usually elongated proportions, consisting of a series of individual pendants. The earrings had a long hook, which was threaded into the ear.
Rings, quite large in size, were usually made with inserts of corals and colored stones in a blind set. Often a stone was attached to a rod. Much attention was paid to the processing and ornamentation of the tufts, which could be wide and narrow, flat and convex. The main method of making rings was casting with subsequent manual processing. The forged ones were made with a stamped shank. The stamped pattern was manually chiselled and engraved. The rings were worn several times on both hands.
Buryat belts with silver engraved plaques or metal plates with a silver notch feature a special decorative feature, which was one of the most common methods of artistic metalworking in Buryats.
Buryat jewelry was made of silver, rarely of gold, using a very diverse processing: chasing, casting, stamping, slotting, filigree, grain, notching, engraving, blackening, kanfarenie, polishing, gilding, silvering. In Transbaikalia, chasing was most common, which was often combined with filigree and grain, less often with black and enamel. With the embossing, the gilding of individual parts of the product, the kanfarenie and the fine engraving of the backgrounds were practiced, which emphasized the relief of the embossing and increased the play of chiaroscuro. Complex images of birds, lions, fantastic dragons were minted. The notch, which reached a high artistic level among the Buryats, developed mainly in the western regions. A special feature of the aesthetic taste of the Buryats is their love for the bright and colorful. Jewelry, as a rule, polychromy, they almost always use colored solid material or stone: corals, amber, turquoise, malachite, topaz, from local stones – lapis lazuli, carnelian, jade. The most popular and often used material is corals, the combination of which with silver is especially effective. The principle of contrast – the most common decorative technique in solving the color composition – gives Buryat ornaments a special decorative effect. Along with color, ornament plays an important role in the decorative decision of products. The ornament of Buryat ornaments is characterized by vegetative and geometric motifs. Stylized branches and flowers are combined with the simplest geometric patterns – circles, zigzags, horn-shaped curls, spirals, rosettes and braids. Ornamental compositions are rhythmically symmetrical. On the round plates, the ornament is surrounded by belts along the circumference, the center is emphasized by a rosette or a color exhibition.
In ornaments of Transbaikalian Buryats, who perceived the elements of Mongolian-Chinese art, ornamentation is characterized by the complex nature of curvilinear forms.
Along with vegetation, zoomorphic motifs are widespread. Lions, fantastic dragons and birds, fish fancifully intertwined with ornamentally treated shells, lotus flowers, Sanskrit letters and some elements of Buddhist pictorial symbols.
The original form of jewelry, bright polychrome and decorative, the specificity of ornamental motifs that fill, as a rule, the entire surface of the product, the volume of the decor, underlined by engraving, the combination of various decoration techniques and, as a consequence, the variety of textures create the distinctive artistic style of Buryat jewelry. high level of craftsmanship of Buryat jewelers.
Traditions of artistic metal processing are preserved and developed in the work of modern Buryat masters. Embossing is the most popular nowadays. Often it is combined with filigree, niello and enamel. Modern works of Buryat craftsmen testify to continuity of technical and artistic methods of metal processing.