Ivan Ivanovich Golikov is a talented master of Palekh art. Returning to his native Palekh after the war. he chose for the application of traditional craftsmanship not wood, but papier-mache, products with a black-lacquered surface, which from the end of the XVIII century were painted in Russia in the Moscow villages.
The Paleshans opened wide opportunities in the field of art of everyday things. The smooth lacquered surface with the objects reflected in it corresponded to the subtleties of traditional writing, revealing the qualities of Palekh mastery. The first experiments of Golikov were supported by the Moscow handicraft museum and were shown at the All-Union Agricultural and Artisanal Exhibition in 1923, where they received a first-degree diploma.
So Golikov, a hereditary icon painter who adopted the first skills of mastery in the icon-painting studio of Safonov and who did not go beyond handicraft performances, becomes one of the founders of Palekh’s new art – lacquer miniature. This was a significant turn, primarily in the artistic consciousness of the master. This fact marked a new stage in the development of folk art.
The individual principle in it has always played a role, but here it is on a new level, since the new path encompasses not only changes in material, technique, forms, but also in images and themes of art. And nevertheless, in this process of the formation of art, along with the great role of the individual principle, traditions as well as creative collectivity play an equally important role, which Palekh owes his rapid flourishing.
In 1924, on the initiative of Golikov, the workshops of the Palekh organization of the Union of Artists of the RSFSR were established. It included seven masters – II Golikov, VV Kotukhin, AI Zubkov, II Zubkov, IM Bakanov, AV Kotukhin, IV Marknchev.
The rhythms of dances in golikov’s works then spread out over the elongated surface of the casket, then they gather and are compressed by the inflorescence into a circle on a small box.
In the work of Golikov, the colors are saturated with many shades, the Palekh painting shines, the Palekh painting shines. In place of the traditional image of the old plowman came the image of a “red plowman”. As a new symbol, he entered the miniature. In a gilded harness fire horse sharply bent his neck and prances along the solar field. In the images-symbols “Plowman” and “Zhnitvo”, a sense of modernity and, at the same time, age-old poetry sounded. A festive feeling of peace was translated into epic images.
Palekh masters always took topics for painting from their lives. In Palekh long time icon painting was combined with field work.
The tradition organically led Paleshan to the fairy-tale and song themes. Having revived the principle of free stigma in miniature, Golikov found the rhythm that corresponded to the rhythmic movement of the fairy tale and allowed to combine on one plane in one pictorial image different events. For example, “The Tale of a Fisherman and a Fish”.
Particularly fruitful in Golikov was work on Pushkin’s tales. The visibility of the images of the great poet, the musicality of his verse rhythms corresponded to the song structure of Palekh painting.
Golikov penetrated into poetry and folklore personified them in his work.
He painted quickly, applying transparent layers. His painting is trembling, flowing in the transitions of color and tone.
The allegory was born from the sense of the image, but at the same time it was determined by the method of work: “I will type different colors,” says Golikov to himself, “I scatter them and paint the picture, proceeding from these flowers, disregarding anything, although in nature there are no green, blue horses “.
If the figurative feeling, the plan required writing the snow red, and the horses green, then no follow-up to the rules could prevent Golikov from this. He wrote exactly as suggested by his poetic feeling, his popular perception of life and art. In the solution of the most difficult artistic problems, the connection with folklore helped preserve the necessary boundary of the conventionality of artistic generalization, the substantial depth of the image. Golikov worked in cycles. Repeated the motif on different subjects, varied them, revealing each time a new facet of content.
The experience of the everyday motif turns into an image of symbolic meaning. But no matter how much it was not a distraction from the concrete, ordinary, at the heart of the decorative image lay the immediate artistic sense of life, the observation of reality.
It is characteristic that Ivan Golikov drew without sketches, he drew immediately on objects. As Zinoviev recalls, “he did very thorough preparation of the whites.”
Each stroke of an easily gliding Golikovo brush then spreads out a spot, then fades in a thin line, sharp and taut, then smooth and soft. Already this creates a feeling of buzzing variability of the motive. On a black background rhythmically arranged written in gold lines of words from the song.
Musicality in the harmonies of rhythms, color spots of a miniature is closely related to the creative method of the Paleshan.
The art of Palekh organically developed poetic narrative, unfolded plot. In this line, along with IV Markitshev, II Zubkov, AV Kotukhin, IA Vatagin, NM Zinoviev and others, Golikov also paved his way, picked up in the work of the collective. Prominent among his works was the work on the “Lay of Igor’s Regiment” in the 30s.
The beauty of the epic image, the epic narrative, awakened the artistic imagination, helped to find spacious, song-finished rhythms that make small compositions expressive and monumental. This was a new way in creating a decorative image. Plastic means the master has reached the internal scale of the image, without violating the features of miniature painting. In this work, the previous battles, outside of time and space, received a narrative concretization. Russian soldiers are depicted as making their way through Polovtsian regiments – riders, riders collide, riders fall, spears and arrows glisten, gilded swords.
In the center of the composition, Igor and the Polovtsian Khan are measuring their strength in a duel. Another miniature depicts the captivity of Igor. The flame-red horse of the prince is stopped at a gallop. Around him, the lilac, blue, green horses of the swooping Polovets create a whirlwind of iridescent inflorescence. The rhythm of the reared horses, the color flowing in halftones, make a miniature movement, surprisingly at the same time balanced in the plane. The colorful surface in golikov’s works with its luminosity and preciousness resembles ancient icons.
The connection of the pictorial image with the poetic text was an ancient tradition of Palekh. And so singing so organically entered the structure of the Palekh image, turned out to be its folklone foundation, which determined the lyric-epic miniature structure. Accordingly, the nature in it is depicted in a folklore, always as if in action and in accord with the human feeling. It is not just a neutral background. Inactive nature and inactive people appeared in folk art when its artistic specificity began to be distorted in the 1940s and 1950s. And the more valuable in subsequent years, in the years of the revival of the tradition of young artists, the experience and achievements of the founders of Palekh art, its founder Ivan Golikov. A careful attitude to his work of the young Paleshans studying in the school of Palekh painting is observed in different periods. Golikov gives an inspiring example in solving a variety of artistic problems and themes in miniature painting. But first of all it opens wide ways in solving the image of a miniature, designed, regardless of the theme and the plot, to radiate joyfully and festively, to make the thing precious. Golikov was the first to introduce a modern theme into miniature, paving the way from the musical-song image to the picturesque one. However, on this path Paleshans faced great difficulties. There was a danger of reducing the poetic image of the miniature, breaking its artistic structure by introducing the principles of easel art into it. External credibility often sought to replace the inner truth of the image. The strength of the artistic talent of I. Golikov, his organic connection with tradition, helped him to avoid all this.
Palekh masters who worked alongside Golikov-N. M. Zinoviev, I. P. Vakurov, D. N. Butorin and others, received great experience and inspiration from him.
Starting from the talented pupil Golikov P. D. Bazhenov, young people of each generation of Palekh masters hone their skills on the example of golikov’s works kept in the State Museum of Palekh Art. Here you can meet those who, keen on the artistic fantasy of a great master, seek to comprehend the elements of his creative talent, and those who, carefully copying his works, try to penetrate into the secrets of high skill.
Many Paleshans of different generations associate their formation in the art of Palekh with Golikov’s name. This is AA Kotukhina, GM Melnikov, BM Ermolaev, from the younger generation- VM Khodov, IV Livanova, EF Shchanitsina, AD Kochupalov, A. N. Klipov and others.
Golikov’s art bears a stamp of a deeply individual style and at the same time he is a vivid representative of the national master – the bearer of the collective folk tradition that comes from generation to generation. In his art, a folkloric tradition and an artistic tradition are synthesized.
“I saw the rising of the bloody moon, and when I looked at the hillock, I wanted to put Razin on him with a goat.” In these words Golikov sees the artist with his own individual sense of the image. But the folklore world of this image, artistic skill formed a collective experience in the art of Palekh. This determines the creative methods in the creation of a miniature, the poetics of its artistic language. All individual in the work of an individual master enters and affirms in the art of the collective, rising to the level of “general”, acquiring its own uniqueness. The motive, the image is sharpened, developed in the creative work of the whole collective, receiving the completeness and peculiarity of expression in the works of one master. Golikov is unique in his images of triples, battles, Zubkov in landscape motifs, and Markichev in images of harvest.
Creativity Golikov became a living part of Palekh art.
Ivan Golikov master of Palekh art
During his hundred-and-ten-year history Zhostov’s artistic craft gave many remarkable masters. The works of folk artists who remained anonymous, in the last century at the Paris World Exhibition literally stunned the audience. In the 20’s and 30’s of this century continues to amaze the art of painting trays by such masters as IS Leontiev, AI Leznov, DS and NS Klyodov, PS Kurzin. Their students, who are now working in Zhostovo, are developing their traditions with dignity.