Manor in Votkinsk
Manor in Votkinsk. Surrounded by lime alleys, hidden by emeralds of greenery in the summer, powdered with brilliant snow scattered in winter, fascinating with its modest, unassuming beauty, there is a house No 1 in Votkinsk. Perhaps for two centuries since its foundation, it would have been forever lost, forgotten in a stormy stream of events of Russian history, if one day a cry of the newborn was not heard within its walls, which was destined to become a world-famous composer.
The fate of the Tchaikovsky house is woven together with the history of the Botkin plant. The beginning of this enterprise is connected with the name of one of the most influential noblemen of the Elizabethan era, Count Pyotr Ivanovich Shuvalov. Shuvalov factories were the so-called Goroblagodat group. With the construction of the next Serebryansky plant in 1755, it became clear that further expansion of the enterprises near the mountain of Grace, where iron was mined, could lead to complete extermination of forests – a source of fuel and carbon raw materials. And then Shuvalov at the ore deposit decided to build blast furnaces, and peredelnye (incomplete cycle) enterprises – in places rich in wood and working hands. In 1757, prospectors reported to Shuvalov that the factories would be well located on the river Votka, with the confluence of the Sharkan and Berezovka rivers. He sent there to explore the terrain of the experienced builder Alexei Moskvin. Work began in the same year with the forces of several thousand peasants assigned to the future plant from the villages of the Kazan province and one hundred and six master Goroblagodat enterprises. Like all the rest of the old Ural plants, Botkinsky took its start from the dam. Shovels, by hand, were prepared and tamped with clay bottom of the pond. The dam was the largest of the previously built in the Urals and formed a huge Botkin pond. It was on this pond that the most beautiful buildings of the city were later turned.
Below the Botkin dam, six factories were successfully built. At the same time, residential houses appeared on both banks of Votka.
In September 1759 the plant was put into operation. He did not belong to Count Shuvalov for long. After the death of Peter Ivanovich, Catherine II issued two decrees on the transfer of the Botkin plant to the state treasury.
The western fiepei pond was built up by houses in which the gentlemen-officials of the Botkinsky plant lived, which gave the name of the coastal street – Gospodskaya.
The owners of the estate
Since the construction of the house No 1 on the Lord’s street in 1806 and before the revolution of 1917, eighteen factory bosses lived in it, replacing each other. In the career sense, the house brought them luck: all of them throughout the service were promoted in rank and rank. And today the museum’s scientists notice that employees who come on an excursion to the museum soon receive a new title.
The house for the families of the mountain chiefs of the Kamsko-Votkinsky district on Lord’s Street was built at a time when the plant was headed by Andrei Fedorovich Deryabin, a major specialist in the field of mining. The wooden plastered house on a stone foundation organically blended into the surrounding landscape and began to resemble the noble estates built in Moscow after the Patriotic War of 1812.
From 1837 to 1848 the chief of the Botkinsky plant was Ilya Petrovich Tchaikovsky. He arrived at the place of service in the rank of lieutenant-colonel, and before his departure was already a major general.
It is easy to calculate that the family of the mountain chief Tchaikovsky lived 11 years in a beautiful house on the shore of the Botkinsky pond. One of the brightest pages in the history of the Botkin plant is associated with the name of the father of musical genius.
Prior to the arrival of Ilya Petrovich, the plant was a metallurgical enterprise that produced iron and anchors.
After the departure of the Tchaikovsky from Votkinsk, House No. 1 continued to function as a government apartment on the street of the Lord, this time for the successor to I.P. Tchaikovsky VI Romanova ‘The last head of the plant in pre-revolutionary times was GI. Boström. The new owners gradually changed the layout of the house.
A prominent page in the history of both home and Votkinsk is the outstanding engineer who ran the plant from 1855 to 1863, Major-General Alexander Iossa. During his management, important orders were carried out at the enterprise-beams for the ceiling of the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg were made, sheet metal was used to cover the Tsarskoe Selo palaces, and a spire of the cathedral of the Peter and Paul Fortress was created. In 1858, the workers of the Botkinsky factory made a skeleton of forty-meter spire and were delivered in disassembled form to St. Petersburg, where they assembled it.
the first direction – steam-building, – which provided a huge technological breakthrough to the enterprise.
In 1888, when the new tenant of the house and the head of the enterprise became V.I. Timofeev, a marine oil tanker “Botkinsky Zavod” was built at the shipyard. Under the management of another factory director, V.V. Vorontsova, the enterprise began to produce floating port cranes with a carrying capacity of up to 50 tons.
But even after a lapse of time, with the change of some chiefs by others, about the stay of the Tchaikovsky in Votkinsk did not forget. In 1909, the Society of Music and Dramatic Art Lovers was established in the city, established, as the Society’s charter stated, “in memory of the birth of Boris Ilyich Tchaikovsky’s Botkinsky Plant.”
Heavy post-revolutionary time did not pass by the house where the future great composer Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky was born. At the beginning of the Civil War, the headquarters of the Kamsko-Votkinsky mountain district housed the headquarters of the White Guards. In the former director’s office sat military commanders, the work of the headquarters office was boiling in the living room, and the captured soldiers of the Red Army languished in anticipation of their fate in the mezzanine of the house – where once in their classroom the young Peter, causing tears of affection for governess Fanny Durbach , tremblingly explained in love to Russia and his people.
In 1919 White had to retreat from Votkinsk, and the Red Guards occupied the house. From here they controlled the liquidation of the remaining hotbeds of “white terror” and the consequences of the Izhevsk-Votkinsk uprising. Very soon the stay in the walls of the house of the military reflected on the state of the estate, the beauty of which was admired by Vasily Zhukovsky, Grand Duke Alexander Nikolayevich – the future Emperor Alexander II – and the little Peter Tchaikovsky. By the time when in 1920 in the house of the factory chief the auditorium of the machine-building technical school was placed, and then transferred to the department of the Youth Union, its situation was either plundered or spoiled.
In 1924 the owners of the house on the bank of the Botkinsky pond again changed their owners, this time they were the pupils and teachers of the Botkin school-seven-year plan. There were only three graduates of the pupils of this educational institution and in 1927, from the place where Tchaikovsky spent his childhood, the Metallist Club was made, for leisure and recreation of the workers of the Botkinsky plant.
In the manor garden built a summer theater for 300 seats, there began to pass folk festivals and celebrate solemn events. However, more and more often in the conversations of the local population there were questions about the old days of this house and about its famous tenant, perhaps more famous for the city of Votkinsk.
Interest in the fate of the estate grew, but the house itself was dilapidated and demanded constant attention, repair and preservation of its historical value. The first to sound the alarm was the head of Seredin, who existed at that time, a local history circle. Several months of correspondence with various authorities in charge of the cultural heritage inherited by the young USSR, and in the summer of 1928 in the Votkinsk Council of Art Affairs sent artist N.V. Pischalkin. Having studied the state of affairs, he presented a detailed report on the plight of the house. By a lucky coincidence, not a single capital structure appeared that would violate the historical layout and landscape of the most beautiful corner of Votkinsk. After all, there is no need to say how much the environment that surrounded him as a child can clarify in the fate and creativity of a genius.
New time …
Since the autumn of 1943, when the museum was ordered to resume its activities, the work began to boil again. After the difficult years of the Great Patriotic War, the exposition was again opened in January 1950. Several stages of restoration, painstaking research of new exhibits, the creation of memorial exposures – and the once-lost building seemingly forever inspired a new life. During the 70-year history of the museum, two stages of scientific and reconstruction work were carried out: in 1968-1970 and in 1986-1990, which allowed the house to be as close as possible to the one it was under the Tchaikovsky.
Its visitors will learn here not only the facts from the history of the city and the plant, the life of the Tchaikovsky family and the composer’s childhood, but also get acquainted with the noble culture that formed the great people who served for the good of the Fatherland.
A special look to any city is attached to its surrounding nature and architectural originality. Almost in every large settlement there are historical buildings, and somewhere even whole streets created by the talented engineering thought of a local architect who lived not one century ago.
Turkish architect of the Urals
The first architect of the house of the head of the Kamsko-Votkinsky mountainous district, NA. Andreevsky, was born in 1786. About the early years of his life, only a few archival accounts were preserved: by origin he was a Turk, and he came to Russia in childhood with his mother, who was among the prisoners during the Russo-Turkish War of 1787-1791. Already in Russia, a small Basurman was baptized and was called Nicholas.
In 1800, at the age of 14, he was sent to study at the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts. After its successful completion, Andreevsky was awarded a certificate of the 1st degree and an honorary sword. By ennobling the city, he managed to realize only a little: the home of the craftsmen, erected by him for two years from 1808 to 1810.
In 1813, Nikolai Andreyevich was appointed provincial architect Vyatka (modern city of Kirov). In the city and to this day there are monuments created by a talented artist. For example, one of the unique buildings of architecture is the V.Ya. Zhamakina, better known as “the house of Witbreg”, as well as the house of P.P. Moskvitinov, who in our days, after many changes, bears the stamp of creativity of an extraordinary architect and is a vivid example of late classicism.
Andreevsky went down in the history of Vyatka town planning in many respects by the fact that in the layout of the Vyatka estates, he introduced a unique way of locating the manor house, which consisted in the fact that the main building was erected in the depth of the plot, and its wings came forward, forming a front yard. Such a layout of estates was considered characteristic of Moscow and St. Petersburg, and for the provincial city was a novelty.
In addition to the estate Andreevsky created a project of a complex of buildings Vyatka City Hospital, but the sudden death of the architect in 1821 prevented the implementation of his plans.
Creation of his harmonious and rational environment factory factory on the river Votka was also due to the talented architect Vasily Nikiforovich Petenkin. It was he who undertook the implementation of the master plan for the construction of Votkinsk, over which many buildings were built, including a hospital, a pharmacy, stables, warehouses, and the improvement of the dam was started. All buildings were made in the characteristic for that time style of Russian classicism.
Vasily Petenkin was born in Moscow in 1783. About his childhood and youth, the information is almost not preserved. It is known only that in his adolescence he entered the Petersburg Academy of Arts and studied the basics of architectural skill under the guidance of Andrei Dmitrievich Zakharov. Shortly after graduation, in 1823, Vasily Petenkin was sent to serve in Votkinsk. For four years of work, he rebuilt all the shops of the Botkin plant, replacing the wooden log buildings with stone walls. The state farmstead of the mountain chief was located in the center of the Lord’s street, behind the house there were buildings for household needs and a small park with lime avenues. From the windows there was a picturesque view of Botkinsky Pond and forest dales, worthy of the brush of the most skilful artist. Thanks to the works of the architect Petenkin, the house was considerably expanded: a mezzanine with a semi-circular window was built up, a northern wing appeared for the three master rooms, the kitchen and the people’s. Outside, it was decorated with three balconies and a parapet on the roof, along the sides there were wooden lattice gates with monumental pylons.
Doric Greek order – was developed in the Peloponnese and in the Greek colonies in southern Italy. The name comes from the name of the tribe of the Dorians, one of the three who inhabited Greece. The buildings of the Doric Greek order are characterized by heavy and powerful columns.
Pylon is a column or pillar with sculptural ornaments.
Russian classicism is a style in architecture that originated in Russia in the second half of the 18th century. Distinctive features of Russian classicism – a combination of elements of different styles and deviation from the established rules and techniques – simplicity, rigor, logical clarity and monumentality – inherent in classicism.
Tuscan order – was formed in ancient Rome on the basis of the Doric order, as a more simplified version.
Particularly interesting was a two-story gazebo, decorated at the bottom by Tuscan pilasters and curtains, the upper floor was decorated with sixteen columns of the Doric order, connected by railings of chiseled balusters. In addition to the house of the factory manager, another octagonal guardhouse with a barrier located on the shore of the pond was another architectural construction that gave special charm to the city. It played an important role – it limited the entrance to the street of Lord – the residence of the factory bosses.
The area where Petenkin proposed to build the main street of the city was good in many ways: firstly, it was in the immediate vicinity of the plant, and secondly, in some places there already at that time was a one-sided building with buildings facing the pond. The idea of the architect was accepted with enthusiasm, and it can be safely asserted that Votkinsk owes a lot to his architect VN in his reasonable and convenient plan. Petenkin.
Vasily Nikiforovich Petenkin died in 1850 in Votkinsk.
Keepers of history
Two hundred years passed since the foundation of the No 1 house on Lord’s Street, and Votkinsk still adorns the building to this day. Today it is known throughout Russia as the place where the genius of music of P.I. Chaikovsky. Now when looking at the house it seems that nothing has changed since the life of the Tchaikovsky here, even though the building underwent various re-planning at the request of its temporary hosts. The place where the manor is located is still the most picturesque in the city, and next to it are the government buildings of factory officials. As in the XIX century, near the main Votkin landmark are the houses in which the Mineralogical Cabinet and the first in the Urals Technical Library were located. The composer’s father always took care of replenishing it with new books, writing out for her funds both scientific and fiction, as well as numerous dictionaries and reference books.
To preserve the monument of architecture and to restore to it the atmosphere of the noble manor, in which lived the little Peter with his family, was possible only thanks to painstaking restoration work. For the first time the house was restored in the 1970s.
She developed an architectural project, thoroughly studying those few archival certificates of the XIX century, in which the interiors were mentioned and the appearance of the house was described. Carefully, opening the stairs and partitions, it allowed Lydia Sergeevna to practically establish the boundaries of the previous rooms with a jeweler’s precision and reproduce on the walls in the rooms the colors that Ilya Petrovich mentioned in his letters to his wife Alexandra Andreyevna. Another important achievement of the restorers of those years can be considered restored exactly – as they were during the life of Tchaikovsky – floors. In just a few preserved floorboards, art historians have reconstructed their drawing and technique of applying it.
Before the next restorer – Vladislav Mikhailovich Glinka, engaged in recreating the interiors of the house, was no less difficult task.
The only thing that he had the opportunity to address in his work was a delivery book, in which a homeowner, leaving him, compiled a detailed inventory of the situation left to him by his successor. Only thanks to this document, the restorer could find out what kind of wood furniture was made, what materials were used for its upholstery and what color they were. However, for a specialist at the level of Vladislav Mikhailovich and this was quite a lot.
Anna Vasilievna Bogolyubskaya and the keepers of the museum worked hard to replenish the exposition. Before the house was erected a monument to Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky, the authorship of the famous Moscow sculptor Oleg Komov. To this memorial during the annual Musical Festival. P.I. Tchaikovsky lays the flowers of famous musicians.
Time of the second scientific restoration, begun in 1986, was a period of flourishing of the Museum-Estate of P.I. Tchaikovsky. Most of the work fell on the shoulders of the new museum director Anna Vasilyevna Bogolyubskaya. The estate with the adjacent city park was to be changed, as close to the original appearance of the XIX century. And now you can walk along the avenue of age-old lime trees, see the flowerbeds with traditional flowers for the gardens of the XIX century: mignonette, gillyflowers, heliotrope, lobelia, – admire how beautifully framed the estate is with roses, lilacs, chubushnik. It was during the second restoration that the documents on the architecture of the manor complex were collected. They helped to eliminate inaccuracies in the exterior of the house of the mountain chiefs. In the mezzanine, a semi-circular “Venetian” window and balconies were recreated, from where Tchaikovsky liked to enjoy the picturesque views of the Votkin pond. The house was returned to its original form of “verb”.
In 1837, Ilya Petrovich Tchaikovsky, a lieutenant colonel of the Corps of Mining Engineers, was appointed the new chief of the Botkinsky plant. As expected, the new head was determined to live in the house No 1 on the street. Before the house-warming, he had many things to do: finish the repair and give out hundreds of orders for the preparation of housing for the arrival of his family. Ilya Petrovich in details told in his letters to his wife Alexandra Andreevna, dreaming to please her in everything, so long as she did not regret about moving from St. Petersburg to the province: “I do not know if you will be satisfied with my order for the apartment . If you do not like it, I’m lost. However, you can do after, as you want. The walls are already ready: the hall is yellow … the living room is blue … the children’s pale … the dining room is old-fashioned yellow, the office is as old as ever …. The furniture is installed and the paintings are hung, so it’s good that for the serviceability, it seems to me , you will kiss me when you come, and your kiss is better than the rank and order. ” It is in this house that the future genius of music Pyotr Tchaikovsky will be born to the loving spouses of Tchaikovsky.
The layout of the manor house, in which the Tchaikovsky lived, practically did not differ from the rules of the erection of Russian estates established at that time. The host’s room and private quarters were facing the courtyard, and the windows of the grand rooms, where the family rested and arranged receptions, looked at a picturesque pond or park.
In the park were placed the necessary for that time architectural decorations – arbors. In the Tchaikovsky estate there were three of them: a “children’s house” where Peter Tchaikovsky spent his leisure time with his brothers and sister, a summer gazebo, blown by a refreshing wind, and a warm winter with thick walls, also called a “tea house”.
There were eleven rooms in the house, five of them were given to children, including two in the mezzanine – a children’s and classroom several chairs, a floor clock, and near a small table – chairs.
Mezzanine – a small superstructure of wooden beams or stone slabs, depending on what material the house was built of, over the middle part of the upper floor of the house, sometimes decorated with a balcony. The name comes from the Italian mezzanino, which means “intermediate”. In the architecture of Russian estates, the mezzanine became widespread in the 19th century.
As expected, at first, any visitor to the house got into the Hallway. Under the Tchaikovsky, its decoration was rather modest: there was a clothes hanger, a table, a mirror hung. Modest, but with taste. The hallway was probably the brightest visible embodiment of the spirit that reigned in the family, where material values were given much less importance than spiritual development.
Having barely entered the post of the mountain chief of the Kamsko-Votkinsk district, Ilya Petrovich wrote to his wife first of all: “On Sunday, as soon as I opened my eyes, officials all crowded into the hall almost without exception, so it is found in the factories here, I was forced to dress hurriedly and get out for the adoption of reports and obeisances. Talks on business with many people have taken quite a long time … ”
Only by the middle of the day, having finished the official affairs that could be resolved at home, the chief went to the main office, where he got acquainted with various papers, signed them, gave directions and instructions.
The receptionist of the plant listened to the reports of visitors: officials who came with petitions; the police chief with a report on the state of order in the factory for the last day and the doctor, who headed Botkinsky hospital, – Sylvester Fyodorovich Tuchmsky.
On the first floor of the house there was an en suite of ceremonial rooms. The main one was a large Hall, furnished with carved mahogany furniture and decorated with lamps with crystal pendants. On the walls of the Hall hung paintings. Most often these were works of unknown painters.
Spouses Tchaikovsky, people of subtle taste and exceptional hospitality, surprisingly quickly settled the local intelligentsia; in their house guests invariably found a warm and hospitable reception. Rare evenings of the Hall were empty. Here engineers, officials, officers gathered to pass the time in a casual conversation, exchange opinions about books read, listen to music.
In the Hall there is a Straight grand piano of the firm “Wirth”, handed over by the Klin Museum in September 1939, to the keys of which the fingers of Peter Ilyich touched. Here you can see and orchestrin. Ilya Petrovich brought her to Votkinsk from Petersburg. It was this musical instrument that opened for Peter Tchaikovsky a fascinating world of music. On the keyboard row, orchestras were sometimes played as on a piano, but when it was only set in motion the mechanism of wooden shafts with a paper tape with the recording of the works of Italian composers Donizetti, Bellini, Rossini and the divine beauty of the melody – “everyone listened and gasped.” Especially Peter Tchaikovsky was captivated by Mozart’s music. “Holy delight” evoked in his soul excerpts from the opera “Don Juan”. It was in this room that Peter learned the musical basics: Aleksandr Andreevna taught him the musical diploma, and when Peter was five years old, a music teacher, Maria Markovna Palchikova, was invited to the house.
Ilya Petrovich was very sensitive to his collection of shafts for orchestral and always cared about its replenishment with musical novelties.
Dining Room Cabinet
Throughout the entire period of Tchaikovsky’s stay in the manor on the street, the Lord’s center of its special universe was the host’s office. This is the place where the life of the estate was established.
The interior of the Cabinet of Ilya Petrovich was modest and strict: oak or mahogany chairs, a sofa and a sofa-pate (now it is in the Classroom in the mezzanine), chairs upholstered, unlike other rooms in the house, not with a silk cloth, but with a leather, business papers and a desk, on which usually lay scores and important papers.
The room was heated with a fireplace. Fireplace shelves were made to decorate or carved a screen of wood and marble, or painted tiles, or elegant objects. In the Tchaikovsky Cabinet, a fireplace watch was decorated with gilded bronze watches by German masters with a miniature figure of Alexander I. In the Cabinet today is one of the main relics of the museum – a fireplace screen embroidered with a small Russian cross. The embroidery depicts a genre sketch of the XVIII century “The Reaper on Holiday”. Embroidered screen Alexandra Andreevna Tchaikovsky.
To the right of the entrance that connected the Cabinet of Ilya Tchaikovsky to the dining room, there is a copy of the picture of the Spanish artist Murillo Bartalane Estabano “John the Baptist with the Lamb” of the first half of the 19th century, under it there is a folding semicircular table, which, during meals, was served with decanters with vodka and snacks, and covered for afternoon tea. Opposite the doors to the Cabinet – and in the Dining room there are four entrances from different rooms – a cupboard is installed. Its shelves are occupied with porcelain dishes made at the largest plants of the first half of the XX century: the Imperial, Popov, Gardner.
Divan-paté – translated from French means “sofa-pirog”. A large square sofa, standing more often in the middle of the room. Sometimes in the center of such a sofa installed a high cabinet-stand. Tumba was covered with the same cloth as the sofa itself, and installed large vases and sculptures on it. In the interiors of noble houses the sofa-paté appeared in the 30s of the XIX century.
On both sides of the wall, a massive buffet is framed by heavy candelabra made of gilded bronze and crystal pendants.
Almost all of the dining room space is occupied by a massive dining table made of mahogany. At the time of the Tchaikovsky on holidays, linen napkins were laid out on a snow-white starch tablecloth on it, plates were put on them. The guests and the owners of the house sat around the table, and the meal began.
On weekdays, at a large table, during a dinner, a large, friendly family of Tchaikovsky gathered. For the table as a full-fledged member of the family sat and the old pious relative of Ilya Petrovich Nadezhda Timofeevna Valtseva. And after dinner, everything was conveniently located on the sofas, covered with silk cloth, so that you can talk slowly.
Blue living room
This room was also in the house of Tchaikovsky. In their Blue room there were more cozy furniture, various decorative fabrics, mirrors, sentimental paintings, beautiful embroideries, than in other rooms of the house. Harmoniously, the sofa fitted into the niche in the form of a tent-ekzedra, where ladies could
to be secretive. Earlier here was a fairy. If the tea was drunk only by the hostess, then they brought a “tapeworm” service – a set for one person. When she was drinking tea with her friend, for two persons from the buffet they got “dezhene”, or “tet-a-tete”. The secretor standing at the wall kept notebooks with housekeeping calculations, letters and albums, in which many famous personalities – guests of the Tchaikovsky house left their autographs.
The Tsarevich with his entourage visited Votkinsk on May 22-23, 1837, where the grand duke was presented with models of a puddling device. Ilya Petrovich, with his characteristic thoroughness, explained to Aleksandr Nikolayevich the principle of the operation of the mechanisms, and Zhukovsky, following careful explanations, brought the exhibits into action.
The bedroom of the composer’s parents
The most intimate room in Tchaikovsky’s house is of special interest and great spiritual significance for many visitors of the estate. It was here, under these arches, on a warm, sunny spring day, May 7, 1840, in the family of Ilya Petrovich and Alexandra Andreevna, a son was born. The boy was given the name of Peter. Happy parents, looking at their child, could not even imagine that a new fate awaits the newborn, the fate of the genius of Russian and world music. The witness of his birth was the icon of the Virgin Mary, which is still in the bedroom today. Since then, the icon has become the most precious and revered in the family relic, it was carefully preserved and passed down from generation to generation.
Puddling device – a special device used to produce iron by pudding. Cast iron was loaded into a huge oven, heated to high temperatures, at which the iron began to “boil.” After the completion of the pudding, the molten iron was removed from the furnace and hammered by removing the slag (i.e., residual impurities), after which it was rolled on special machines. A similar method of obtaining low-carbon steel existed from the beginning of the nineteenth century up to the first half of the 20th century.
Children’s swaddling clothes
In this room lived the youngest children with the bonny Caroline. On the changing table – children’s handmade clothes: dresses, bonnets, ryoshonki. In the XIX century, the apparel of young children was the same and did not differ by sex. Parents always took care that in children’s rooms there were no drafts, the cradle was necessarily put closer to the furnace.
On the wall hangs the only photo of the Tchaikovsky family’s residence in Votkinsk, made in 1848: Zinaida and Nikolai, Alexandra Andreevna, Ilya Petrovich with Hippolyte, sitting on his lap, daughter of Alexander and Peter.
Among the abundance of children’s toys in the glass case is an icon of the Vladimir Mother of God. A memorable event occurred in this way in Votkin’s house, about which Alexandra Andreevna wrote to her sister Katya. Once, when the eldest son of Tchaikovsky Nikolai was only about a year old, he fell seriously ill: the fever rose, and the alarmed Alexandra Andreyevna sent for a doctor. After examining the boy, he diagnosed “the strongest inflammation in the brain, and did not hide that there is no hope.” The mourning aunt Nadezhda Timofeevna decided to bring from the Annunciation Cathedral an icon of the Vladimir Mother of God. Protopop of the Annunciation Cathedral Vasily Blinov served a moleben, after which Nikolai woke up; The first word he uttered was “God.” Kolya recovered, and the icon was returned to the walls of the temple. The story of a successful recovery in a moment flew around Votkinsk, and the parishioners of the Annunciation Cathedral began to worship this icon as having a special miracle power.
In this room girls under the supervision of their relatives were engaged in needlework; on the table you can see the pouch, embroidered with small beads. Here also passed the so-called “lessons of patience”: the girl was given tangled threads, which she had to carefully untangle, not tearing, and wind a tangle. It was a very difficult task, it required exceptional attention, patience and skill.
Peter liked to resort to this room to Aunt Nadezhda Timofeevna. After dinner, the old lady often called Nikolay and Peter to her room, opened her chest and took out a treat – mint gingerbread. Nadezhda Timofeevna made Peter his heir, giving him his only wealth – the icon of the Kazan Mother of God. She, deeply indifferent to the glory of the musician and never heard a note from his works, until the last day of her life kept an enthusiastic attitude to the beloved Petichka, bowing before his human features, which eclipsed in her eyes all the talents of the great musician.
In the Maiden’s Wall hung with family photos of Peter’s beloved sister, Alexandra, who was younger than him for a year and a half. The main decoration of the room is a favorite toy of girls – an old doll, she has moving joints, a beautiful porcelain face and a wig made of natural hair.
IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY, EDUCATION OF CHILDREN IN THE NORTHERN FAMILIES CONVENIENTLY TRUSTED BY THE GUERNNANTS OR THE GUVERNANT. IN DIFFERENCE FROM THE INCREDIBLE FORTRESS NIGHTS, WHO RESPONSIBLE FOR MAINTENANCE OF GENTLEMEN CHILDREN, THE GUERNANT’S OBJECTIVE WAS GIVING A CHILD AS IT CAN BE MORE KNOWLEDGE. FOR PARTICIPATION OF THE PARENTS, SPECIAL CONDITIONS, IN PARTICULARITY, CLASS ROOMS INTENDED FOR HOME TRAINING.
Classic game in classics
In 1844, at the end of summer, Alexandra Andreyevna Chaikovskaya and her son Nikolay left for Petersburg to visit with relatives, but the main purpose of the trip was to find a governess in the capital for the children who were growing up. In St. Petersburg, Mrs. Tchaikovsky was represented by the 22-year-old Frenchwoman F-11 Fanny Durbach. They liked each other from the first moment of their acquaintance. At the beginning of winter, Aleksandra Andreevna returned to Votkinsk along with the governess.
Fanny received a good pedagogical education and could teach all subjects, with the exception of the Russian language and the Law of God.
She taught children mathematics, geography, history, German and French. Initially, classes were conducted only with Nikolai – the eldest son of Tchaikovsky – and Lydia, the niece of I.P. Tchaikovsky. Very soon they were joined by a five-year-old Peter – he begged his parents for permission to study together with older children. For a good study, Fanny every week marked the best student with a red bow, and a serious competition for the right to own it flared up between the children. By the age of six Peter had already spoken and written in German and French.
The union of two loving hearts gave the world a genius of music, whose works are admired by many generations of people around the world. Only in an atmosphere of good and all-consuming love could such a miracle happen.
The father of talent
Ilya Petrovich was born in the city of Slobodskaya Vyatka province (now the district center of the Kirov region) July 20, 1795 in the family of the mayor Peter Fedorovich Tchaikovsky and the daughter of an officer from Kungur Anastasia Stepanovna, in the girlhood Posokhovoy. Ilya was the youngest son. In total, twelve children were born in the family of the composer’s grandfather, three of whom died in early childhood.
In 1810, the house on Kurennaya Street in Izhevsk, where Ilya Tchaikovsky lived with his elder sister’s family, Catherine, burned to the ground. All of them had to move to the settlement formed at the Botkinsky factory. The future father of the great composer got a job here. At the factory, he worked until the summer of 1811, until his departure for Petersburg, for training in the Mountain Cadet Corps.
Thus, Ilya Petrovich’s worldview and his interests were formed under the influence of the mining environment.
It is no coincidence that such outstanding artists as Vasily Karatygin and close friend of Ilya Petrovich, the ancestor of the famous actor’s dynasty Vasily Samoilov, came out of the walls of this educational institution.
After the end of the corps in 1817 with a large silver medal – the highest award of the educational institution – I.P. Tchaikovsky was assigned to practice in the Perm Mining Board. His choice was Mary Karlovna Kaiser. The marriage was tragic.
The cultural level of the technical intelligentsia of the XIX century serving in the Urals was quite high. And of course the great influence on Ilya Petrovich Tchaikovsky was provided by the years of study in the St. Petersburg Mountain Cadet Corps, which was famous not only for its magnificent engineering, but also for its beautiful artistic education. From the very beginning it was headed by people who were keenly interested in art.
And at the annual public examinations, where the cadets showed their art in singing and dancing, in the game on various musical instruments, there were such figures of Russian culture as Nikolai Karamzin and Vasily Zhukovsky. From among the students of the corps, a student orchestra performed simple symphonies and overtures, in which Ilya Tchaikovsky played the flute. However, in 1831 Marya Karlovna died, leaving Ilya Petrovich a widower, and their two-year-old daughter Zinaida was an orphan. Three years later, Ilya Petrovich married Alexandra Andreevna Assier. Their alliance was destined to be long and happy.
Ilya Petrovich and Alexandra Andreevna’s marital relations amazed everyone with their touching and romanticism.
They were attentive and courteous to each other, each subtly felt the spiritual world of his chosen one. Sincerity, love and care became the basis of their prosperous family, to which Ilya Petrovich was as if rewarded for his past sufferings.
When Alexandra was only three years old, Ekaterina Mikhailovna died. At first little Sasha was brought up as a nanny in her father’s house when the girl was six years old, her father decided to give her daughter a decent education and gave it to the Patriotic Institute (at that time – the School of Women’s Orphans), where Alexander was taught housekeeping, needlework, languages and music .
She was a very talented person, and when, in studying the biography and composer’s work, the question arises: whether Peter Ilyich inherited his musical abilities from his parents, the answer is obvious, because his mother possessed an extraordinary musical talent.
In Votkinsk there was a surprisingly favorable environment for the development of the obvious talent of little Peter. His father, as mentioned earlier, was very fond of art and supported the beginnings of his wife in every possible way, revealing to the son the wonderful world of musical sounds.
According to Alexander’s character, Andreyevna was a reserved person, “not very affectionate”, her kindness was expressed not so much in words as in deeds.
Being away from the metropolitan life, she never ceased to engage in self-education, was keenly interested in art and literature, was one of the few who wrote French magazines in Votkinsk. Alexander Tchaikovsky could not be called a beauty. However, she fascinated everyone who had ever known her. High-stature, plump, with a royal article and a fascinating look, Alexandra Andreevna seemed to be worthy of Raphael’s brush. Ilya Petrovich was madly in love with her and always missed her. He wrote to his wife: “The sky is pure, like my love for you or, better to say, like your soul. My incomparable golden diamond friend, my soul, my heart, God knows what I would pay to just look at you. ” The son’s love for his mother was unusually strong. When Alexandra Andreeva drove Petya to St. Petersburg in preparatory classes at the law school, he cried all the way. When they arrived at the place of separation, he lost all self-control. Only the music helped Tchaikovsky get up on his feet.
The history of the provincial Votkinsk can be safely divided into “before” and “after” the day when it housed an amazing, talented and so much made for Russia family of Tchaikovsky.
The genus of seagulls
Pyotr Fyodorovich passed the Russo-Turkish War in the rank of a second. After its completion, the regiment was quartered in Perm, and Peter Fedorovich was appointed to the service in the city of Kungur by a doctor. In 1782, by decree of Empress Catherine II Peter Fedorovich was transferred from Kungur to Vyatka governorate (he served as a doctor in Vyatka, modern Kirov). After two years of successful service, on May 24, 1784, Pyotr Fyodorovich was promoted to the headquarters.
So the noble family line of Tchaikovsky began.
About the friendly and close-knit family of Tchaikovsky in Votkinsk there were legends. Their quivering attitude towards each other, warmth and sensitivity were perhaps the most favorite topic for talking to local gossips.
The parents of the composer of the soul did not like each other and were an excellent example for children. Four children were brought up in the house: Nikolai, Peter, Alexandra and Hippolytus, as well as Lydia’s niece. From the first days, when the future wife of Tchaikovsky met a little Zina, she adopted her as her own daughter. Alexandra Andreevna was well aware of what it means to live without maternal warmth, not to love the closest person in the world, so she treated Zinaida as her mother all her life. However, of course, the most beloved and all adored child in the family was a little Peter. Alexandra Ilyinichna subsequently married the son of the Decembrist Vasily Davydov, Lev Davydov, and left with him to the family estate of her husband in Ukraine, in Kamenka. Alexandra always supported the brother’s desire to connect his life with music. He paid sincere love to his sister’s family and often stayed in Kamenka. About Alexandra and her husband, Pyotr Ilyich said: “I can say about them without exaggeration, that they belong to a small number of the best people in the world.” The composer composed an album of children’s plays, the performance of which was available to beginning musicians, and so he called it “Children’s Album”. The cycle included 24 plays and was dedicated, as did Tchaikovsky’s 6th symphony, to his nephew Vladimir Davydov.
All the children of Tchaikovsky have grown worthy successors of their kind. The eldest son of Ilya Petrovich, Nikolai, followed in the footsteps of his father. He graduated from the Mining Institute, for a long time served as an engineer for mining, and then devoted himself to the railway sector. Ippolit was trained in the Navy Corps. As he himself admitted, by this choice he is indebted to the occasion. He dreamed of a sailor’s career, he did not want to disappoint his father, who saw him as a student at the Mining Institute.
Very warm relations with Peter were with his twin brothers Modest and Anatoly, who were born when the family left Votkinsk for Alapaevsk. The brothers, just like him, graduated from the law school in St. Petersburg. His authorship belongs to several dramas, which had a huge success, and translations of Shakespeare’s sonnets. After the death of Peter Ilyich, Modest began writing a biography of the composer and created the Tchaikovsky Museum in Klin, near Moscow.
The house in which the future composer was destined to be born was always full of guests. The hospitable family gladly welcomed their friends and quickly made new acquaintances with specialists who arrived at the Botkinsky plant. Tchaikovsky was very friendly with the family of Sylvester Fyodorovich Tuchamsky, a doctor of medicine and surgery. His medical art was famous far beyond Votkinsk, people came to him to be treated even from Moscow and St. Petersburg. Mikhail Evgrafovich Saltykov-Shchedrin, who was exiled to Vyatka at the time, was among the patients of the doctor. In memory of the remarkable doctor S.F. Tuchamskom was cast a medal, to which the St. Petersburg Medical and Surgical Academy awarded its best students.
Among the famous people who visited Tchaikovsky’s house, as already mentioned, was also the heir to the imperial throne – Grand Duke Alexander Nikolayevich, who in 1837 made a long trip across Russia and on May 22 arrived at the Botkinsky plant. His arrival there Ilia Petrovich associated with the hope of introducing technical innovations, which the prince coveted with great enthusiasm. In the retinue of his 19-year-old Alexander was his tutor, the famous Russian poet Vasily Andreevich Zhukovsky, he even made a few pencil sketches of the Botkin and Izhevsk factories, including the balcony of the house on Lord’s Street.
In the family of Ilya Petrovich, the future emperor, his retinue and Zhukovsky stayed at their house many times. This event could not but affect Peter’s interest in Zhukovsky’s work.
Zhukovsky, and read this fairy tale, which he loved terribly in his childhood. ” Since childhood, besides music, Peter in his various manifestations attracted the art of the word. At a young age, he showed a penchant for writing poems and a great love for participation in family views.
In the house of the Tchaikovsky often evenings were arranged, during which Aleksandra Andreyevna played at the piano.
Colleagues of Ilya Petrovich were not limited to a circle of narrowly specialized interests. They were people who were widely educated, interested in literature and art. Ilya Petrovich’s faithful companion, Vasily Ipatovich Romanov, the manager of the Botkin plant, being an excellent specialist in the field of metallurgy, nevertheless passionately loved music and was an indispensable participant in the amateur chamber ensemble that was gathering in the Tchaikovsky house. For more than thirty years Vasily Yegorovich Blinov, the rector of the Annunciation Cathedral, was associated with the Tchaikovsky family. In the cultural circles of the Vyatka province he was known, as well as a public figure, ethnographer, teacher, poet, and a person with excellent musical abilities. V.E. Blinov achieved a good staging of the voices of the singers in the cathedral, the singing of which Tchaikovsky always admired.
Music from the earliest years took possession of the whole soul of the little Petit Tchaikovsky. Frequent lessons developed his ears and musical memory.
However, it seemed to domestic people that such excessive diligence would not lead to good. Moreover, according to the governess of Mademoiselle Fanny, the boy, after studying music, became nervous and upset. But the child’s passion for music grew stronger every day. When Petya was forbidden to play the piano, he began to tap the rhythm on any objects that came under his arm.
Governess Fanny Durbach, describing the boy’s mentor, noticed that it was “a quiet, modest, shy person”. Good memory of the first teacher Peter saved for many years. Very soon the boy mastered the instrument and easily selected the plays he liked, which in the evenings were played by adults.
Occasionally a familiar Polish officer, Mashevsky, came to visit their house. Young Peter always looked forward to his arrival with impatience, because very few people managed to play Chopin’s mazurki as brilliantly as a foreign visitor. One day the future composer devoted several months to learning mazurkas with only one goal – to amaze Mashevsky with his play. I must say, he did it: a touched Pole kissed his young friend, and Peter was incredibly pleased with himself and with what impression he was able to make on an adult.
Extraordinary worried young Tchaikovsky and the magic world of melodies, issued by the orchestra. With the sound of this musical instrument, Aleksandra Andreyevna often noticed tears in her eyes. Most of all he was captivated by the music of Mozart.
“Do you know that you will find my small works of those years? I have retained what you called “your pleasure notebooks.” You wrote them during breaks between classes, “her elderly governess, Mademoiselle Fanny Durbach of Montbéliard, told Peter Tchaikovsky, his famous student, less than a year after this letter On the December day of 1892, walking along the streets of a French town, Pyotr Ilyich probably did not expect to open the door to the world of his distant bright childhood, as soon as he crossed the threshold of the house of Fanny Durbach, and when the dear old man came out to him ka and so familiar to him ease welcomed the guests, though Tchaikovsky
moved forty years ago to Votkinsk. The past returned with an amazing reality: before him was his governess, and he, her beloved disciple, little Pierre, stood opposite and gulliedly gazed at her. How many common memories, how many almost forgotten, but they were so dear to them both of the moments of the Votkin life. Since the first meeting in Votkinsk in 1844, they have felt their spiritual kinship, which even the time of separation could not be destroyed.
What was in these children’s notebooks of Peter Tchaikovsky, which the governess carefully kept until the end of the days? What were the lines written in a student’s uneven handwriting? Even Modest Ilyich Tchaikovsky, who managed to meet Fanny Dyurbach in 1894, she allowed to make only copies of Votkin’s records of little Peter. They served for Modest Ilyich as the basis for the narrative of his brother’s childhood.
Fanny also gave him copies of letters to Pyotr Ilyich Alexandra Andreevna Tchaikovsky and Nastasya Vasilyevna Popova, niece of Ilya Petrovich. She also entrusted him with an autograph of one of the children’s poems by the composer.
“Notebooks of pleasure”, apparently, there were only two – 1847 and 1848 – as well as several separate sheets. Not to mention the fact that they do not have any resemblance to real poetry. ”
And indeed, the poems of the seven-eight-year-old Peter Tchaikovsky are awkward in form, some of them are completely devoid of logical development of the plot and there are a lot of absurdities in them. So, for example, complete disregard for punctuation marks is excessively compensated in them by the abundance of exclamations and repetitions. Rhyme is most often absent, but at the same time it can not be said that the lines are devoid of the rhythm of the syllable and the recitative smoothness. Little Petr never showed his works to anyone at home, only occasionally did he accidentally leave them so that his friend, governess Fanny could read them. The most valuable specimen is the piano “Wirth”, on which the young Pyotr Ilyich played.
Today, visitors to the museum-estate are presented with unique evidence of the noble life of the XIX century and, of course, the life of Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky. From the very threshold, in the Hallway, everyone who came to this house to touch the history and culture of Russia is met with rare exhibits. The exposition, located here, is devoted to the fate of the Tchaikovsky family. Visitors can get acquainted with the genealogical tree of the male line of the genus.
Walking through the rooms with carefully reconstructed interiors of that era, as if leafing through not only the pages of the life of the Tchaikovsky family, but all of Russia.
In 2009, in the mezzanine of the memorial house was opened a unique exhibition of author’s porcelain dolls “Music born of childhood”, whose authors were artists from Moscow, Perm, Omsk, Yekaterinburg and Izhevsk. Characters of operas and ballets of P.I. Tchaikovsky, whose stories are the subjects of books read by the composer in his childhood. They were created as part of the “Museum Doll” program of the Collectors Club of Russia. Great popularity among visitors enjoys a theatrical excursion, on which the Votkin households come to life. And then, as if by a wave of magic wand, visitors are transported to the distant past.
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