Memorable badges of cities of heroes
Memorable badges of cities of heroes of the USSR
The military feats of cities that have become impregnable bastions in a formidable year of testing are dedicated to hundreds of badges produced in our country since the mid-1960s. One of the first appeared a series of icons on which the name of the city is given on a fluttering red ribbon against the background of the laurel branch. On the right is the Gold Star medal. The badges of the other series were made in the form of a heraldic shield intertwined with a Guards ribbon, in the center of which is a five-pointed star and the name of a hero city.
The badge is attached to the shoe in the form of a red moire tape. In 1976, a set of icons “Hero City” was released, consisting of eleven aluminum miniatures anodized to the color of gold and painted with enamels of five colors. The icons are in the form of a rectangle with corners cut off at the bottom. On the upper protruding part, made in the form of a guards band, is a star. In the center of the badges, in a circle, are the monuments of the fallen heroes in each of the cities. The name of the city, the inscription “Hero City” and the laurel branches are shown on the icon.
A series of ten icons prepared for the 30th anniversary of the Victory was originally performed. They are dedicated to the hero cities of Moscow, Leningrad, Novorossiysk, Sevastopol, Odessa, Volgograd, Kiev, Kerch, Minsk and the fortress-hero Brest. All the icons have a common base, representing a wreath of laurel leaves with inscribed in it a quadrangle. In the center of each icon is a circle in which the main sign of the hero city is placed, and to the right or left there is a Gold Star medal.
On the lower edge of the circle, a decorative ribbon with the name of the city is twisted. For example, in the center of the badge of the city-hero Volgograd is placed a miniature copy of E. Vuchetich’s sculpture “Motherland”. On the icon “Fortress-Hero Brest” – the contours of the fortress towers with a fluttering banner on one of them. The badges are made of blackened aluminum with a relief image. They were issued by the experimental creative and industrial combine of the Art Fund of the RSFSR.
Monuments of military valor are presented in the memorable series, which opens with the icon with the text “Moscow. 1941-1945. ” An icon with an icon depicting an obelisk erected in the capital in 1977 to commemorate Moscow’s conferring the title of Hero City.
The battle of Moscow became the brightest page of the chronicle of the heroism of Soviet people. About 25 kinds of badges were issued to the 25th anniversary of the defeat of the German fascist troops near Moscow. They are made of light metal, covered with cold enamel. From the drawings of these miniatures, a dark Moscow sky opens, cut by the beams of searchlights, tanks that go into battle …
The anti-tank “hedgehog” against the outline of the outline of the city and the Kremlin tower is the plot of the badge issued in the form of a rectangle with the dates “1941 – 1966”. Another badge reproduced the crenellate of the Kremlin wall, the contours of Lenin’s Mausoleum and the ranks of soldiers participating in the military parade on November 7, 1941, directly from the Red Square leaving for the front. “The enemy was stopped here”, “23 kilometers of the Leningrad Highway”, “41 kilometers of the Volokolamsk Highway”, “December 6, 1941” – we see these inscriptions on badges, united in the collection “Frontiers of Glory”.
They are depicted: anti-aircraft gun, standing on a pedestal in the city of Lobnya at the fork of the Dmitrovsky and Rogachev Highways; famous tank T-34, installed on the last line, where the guardsmen of the division AP Beloborodov stopped the fascist hordes; the front line was drawn up, with which the Soviet offensive began near Moscow on December 5-6, 1941.
At the entrance to Zelenograd in 1974, a monument to the Defenders of Moscow was opened. Above the roadside Mound of Glory, a gray concrete obelisk ascended – three huge closed bayonets, symbolizing the stamina of three military units-rifle, tank, cavalry. This monument is depicted on the icon made by the photographic method. The inscription on it is: “Motherland will never forget her sons.”
In 1975, at the Dubosekovo crossing, a memorial ensemble “Podvigu 28” was opened, dedicated to the unprecedented heroism of 28 Panfilov heroes. In the open field there are six heroes, personifying the soldiers of six nationalities who fought in the ranks of 28 Panfilovites. One of them looks ahead vigilantly, the other two, squeezing grenades in their hands, were made to fight. On the right is the three-figure part of the ensemble “Oath for Fidelity to the Motherland”. A copy of this sculptural composition is embodied in a round-shaped badge. Above the circle there is an inscription “To the Heroes of the Panfilovites”, on the lower left – a laurel branch. The badge is attached to the shoe in the form of a Guards tape, on which the dates: “1941-1945”.
Every feat of Soviet soldiers in the battle near Moscow was marked by the creation of new metal miniatures. The icon dedicated to the 40th anniversary of the defeat of the fascist troops on the snow-covered fields of the Moscow region was originally made. His drawing contained the silhouettes of the Spassky Tower of the Kremlin and the Lenin Mausoleum, columns of parade participants on November 7, 1941 on Red Square, aerial balloons in the Moscow sky.
One of the most outstanding feats of the Soviet people in the Great Patriotic War was the heroic defense of Leningrad. The city on the Neva not only survived the siege, but also defeated the enemy. The nine-day blockade resembles a rectangular icon with the star of the Hero of the Soviet Union and the inscription “900 days”. The main sculpture of the Piskarevsky memorial “Motherland” is presented in several miniatures.
The monument to Vladimir Lenin at the Finland Station, the red-stars aircraft flying to the assault of the enemy, the mighty tanks that are going to break through the enemy ring, and the text “20 Years of Lifting the Siege of Leningrad” -this is the story of two other commemorative badges.
By the 30th anniversary of the Victory in May 1975, a monument to the heroic defenders of Leningrad was opened. Sculptures of soldiers and sailors, pilots and builders of defensive structures, partisans and militia fighters are installed on granite pedestals on both sides of Victory Square. Fragments of this monument are reproduced on a special series of icons made by the Leningrad Mint. The Admiralty building, the Eternal Flame on the Champ de Mars, the Peter and Paul Fortress were repeatedly depicted on the badges.
The Battle of Stalingrad, which lasted 200 days and nights, became a symbol of the unbending will, courage and fortitude of the Soviet people, their endless devotion to the great ideas of communism. Soviet soldiers stood to the death, protecting every inch of the Volga land. The rout of the enemy on the banks of the Volga marked a decisive contribution to the achievement of a radical change in the course of the Great Patriotic War and the Second World War as a whole. A grand sculptural ensemble, built on Mamayev Hill, perpetuated the feat of the heroic defenders of Stalingrad, was widely reflected in the art of miniature graphics.
Especially often on the icons there are images of the monument to the 52-meter sculpture of Motherland and sculpture “Standing to the Death!” In the center of the picture of one of these icons is “Motherland”, raising a punishing sword. At the bottom of the badge is the Gold Star medal and the laurel branch. The memorable text reads: “Hero City Volgograd”.
Interestingly, the icon with the text “Volgograd. The front edge of the defense. ” It shows the tower of the T-34 tank, which stands for the front line of defense of the 13th Guards Rifle Division. Seventeen such commemorative marks along the front line of the 62nd Army are set in Volgograd. The broken red line crossing the icon symbolizes the defensive line of the front edge.
“1943-1973” -this dates are shown on a rectangular icon, issued for the 30th anniversary of the Battle of Stalingrad. In his drawing there are red arrows indicating the direction of the strikes of Soviet troops in the encirclement and the destruction of the 300,000 enemy grouping. One of the episodes of the meeting of fighters of the Southwestern and Stalingrad fronts during the brilliant operation of the Soviet troops is depicted on the badge with the image of the monument “The Fronts’ Union in Pyatimorskoe.” Heroic defense during the war was famous for the capital of Soviet Ukraine Kiev.
In the Pechersk district of Kiev on the steep picturesque slope of the Dnieper the memorial complex “Park of Eternal Glory to the soldiers of the Great Patriotic War” was built, one of the most significant in ideological design of the memorials of Kiev. In the center of the park stands a 26-meter-high pointed obelisk of Glory from the dark gray granite. The Obelisk of Glory is recreated on the blue background of the badge. At the foot of the monument – Eternal Flame at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier; in the left part of the badge – the Guards ribbon and the coat of arms of the hero city.
In many series dedicated to hero cities, a monument-museum of liberation of Kiev is represented – a monumental composition erected on a high mound and crowned with the figure of a Soviet Army soldier. The capital of Belarus Minsk was one of the first Soviet cities to take on the blow of the fascist hordes. With the outbreak of the Great Patriotic War, Minsk was in the direction of the main attack of the German fascist troops.
Soviet soldiers, together with the militia units, steadfastly held positions, but under his blows they were forced to retreat. At the price of great courage and many thousands of lives, our people stopped the enemy and drove him back.
Three years after the outbreak of the war, Soviet soldiers entered the land from where the war came. The operation, which resulted in the liberation of Belarus and our troops reached the borders of East Prussia, was called “Bagration”.
In Minsk on Victory Square a majestic obelisk is erected – the Victory Monument, commemorating the memory of the soldiers of the Soviet Army, guerrillas and underground fighters who died in the struggle for the liberation of Belarus from the Nazi invaders. It is a high tetrahedral prism, faced with gray granite and crowned with the Order of Victory.
In different years, icons were produced with the image of the Victory Monument and the Gold Star medal.
Often found on the signs of the Hill of Glory, inaugurated on July 5, 1969 in honor of the 25th anniversary of the liberation of Belarus. It was built on the spot where, in July 1944, Soviet troops surrounded more than 100,000 troops of the enemy. In 1981, the Minsk Experimental Mechanical Plant named after M.Sh. N. Gastello issued badges on which the Mound of Glory is represented in six versions, and six types of metal miniatures “Minsk – Hero City”.
In 1974, on the 30th anniversary of the liberation of Belarus, an icon depicting the Mound of Glory appeared and a fragment of the map giving an idea of the progress of Operation Bagration. The shaded sections of the map are surrounded by German groups.
The feat of Odessa during the Great Patriotic War was a bright page inscribed in the history of the struggle of the Soviet people against Hitlerite Germany.
The 73-day defense of Odessa is one of the most impressive examples of the mass heroism of Soviet soldiers and residents of the city.
May 9, 1960 in the Central Park of Culture and Rest. T. Shevchenko Odessa was unveiled a monument to the Unknown Sailor erected in honor of the soldiers of the Maritime Army and sailors of the Black Sea Fleet defending the city in 1941. The monument can be seen on the icons of the series “Hero Cities”. The icon with the image of the monument on the background of the Order of the Patriotic War, naval flag and stylized waves is interesting by decision. On the icon text: “Odessa. Monument to the Unknown Sailor. ”
During the enemy occupation of Odessa in the city, there were 45 underground groups and 6 partisan detachments based in the catacombs. “1941-1944. Odessa catacombs “-such as the text of the icon depicting the exit from the caves of the people’s avengers with weapons in their hands. Almost 60 kilometers stretched around Odessa, the Green Belt of Glory. He went through the main line of defense of the hero city in 1941. The majestic monuments erected on this boundary remind of the immortal feat of the participants in the heroic defense of Odessa – sailors, infantrymen, artillerymen, people’s militiamen.
Each of the Belt of Glory monuments is dedicated to individual icons.
The symbol of Russian and Soviet naval fame was the legendary Sevastopol. Never fail the steadfastness and courage of his defenders, 250 long days defending the city from the fascists.
In the center of Sevastopol, in Nakhimov Square, in 1967, a memorial of Glory was built. On the concrete wall – a relief image of a Soviet Army soldier, reflecting the onslaught of the enemy. At the base of the wall are plaques of polished granite; on them the names of military units and formations defending the city were carved – enterprises that worked for the front. A fragment of the memorial of Glory is represented on a round-shaped icon with the text: “Sevastopol. 1941-1942.
” “Courage, fortitude, loyalty of the Komsomol” – we read this inscription on the badge that is attached to the shoe with the word “Sevastopol”. The icon is dedicated to the monument to the Komsomol members – defenders of the Black Sea stronghold. At the beginning of the war, 1,500 Komsomol members, including 100 girls, went to the front. All of them fought with true courage and selflessness. The icon depicts a monument built in the form of a three-figure sculptural composition – a soldier, a sailor and a nurse. The monument was erected at the expense of the Komsomol members and young people of Sevastopol.
In commemoration of the 30th anniversary of the liberation of Sevastopol from the Nazi invaders in 1974, commemorative badges were issued. One of them is a circle with a diameter of 38 millimeters on the background of the anchor. On the circumference there is a memorial inscription. In the picture on the left – the Gold Star of the Hero and the laurel branch; to the right – the obelisk of the Glory of the memorial complex on Sapun Mountain. The obelisk was opened in November 1944 as a symbol of the valor of the participants in the storming of Sapun Mountain and the liberation of the city. The icon is attached to a triangular block, the inscription on which “30 years” is given against the background of the Guards ribbon.
More than a year the heroic struggle for Novorossiysk continued, which was included in the history of the last war as one of the examples of the unbending will and courage of Soviet people.
Vpechatlyayushche vyglyadit podborka miniatyur, rasskazyvayushchaya o pamyatnikakh zashchitnikam Novorossiyska i Maloy zemli. Na znachkakh vosproizvedeny «Torpednyy kater», ustanovlennyy na betonnom postamente v 1968 godu, pamyatnik-ansambl’ «Liniya oborony», pamyatnyy znak «Peredniy kray oborony» i pamyatnik «Vzryv», vypolnennyy iz krupnykh oskolkov i tselykh bolvanok snaryadov, min i aviabomb. Ves yego 1250 kilogrammov, to yest’ stol’ko, skol’ko smertonosnogo metalla obrushil vrag na kazhdogo sovetskogo voina za 225 dney oborony Maloy zemli.
V oznamenovaniye bessmertnogo podviga sovetskikh voinov, pavshikh za osvobozhdeniye Kryma, na vershine gory Mitridat v gorode-geroye Kerchi vozdvignut obelisk Slavy, predstavlyayushchiy soboy 22-metrovuyu trekhgrannuyu kolonnu na shestigrannom, s tremya stupenchatymi vystupami postamente. Na litsevoy storone postamenta, obrashchennoy k tsentru goroda, izobrazhen orden Slavy.
Obelisk zapechatlen na bol’shinstve znachkov, posvyashchennykh gorodu-geroyu Kerchi. Odin iz nikh otmetil 30-letiye nachala Kerchensko-El’tigenskoy desantnoy operatsii voysk Severo-Kavkazskogo fronta, sil Chernomorskogo flota i Azovskoy voyennoy flotilii. V tsentre znachka — obelisk, sleva — Zolotaya Zvezda Geroya, sprava — daty «1943—1973» i lavrovaya vetv’. Vnizu nadpis’: «Kerch’». Znachok izgotovlen na Respublikanskom proizvodstvennom tvorchesko-eksperimental’nom kombinate Ukrainskogo obshchestva okhrany pamyatnikov istorii i kul’tury. Nesokrushimoy tverdyney na puti vraga v gody Velikoy Otechestvennoy voyny stala Tula.
V yuzhnoy chasti goroda, tam, gde v oktyabre — dekabre 1941 goda prokhodil peredniy kray oborony sovetskikh voysk, voznikla novaya ploshchad’, poluchivshaya v 1965 godu naimenovaniye ploshchad’ Pobedy. Zdes’ podnyalsya vvys’ velichestvennyy monument — plechom k plechu s avtomatami v rukakh zastyli sovetskiy soldat i opolchenets, olitsetvoryaya yedinstvo armii i naroda. Monumental’nyye figury pamyatnika slivayutsya v yedinyy ansambl’ s vzmetnuvshimsya nad ploshchad’yu stal’nym obeliskom v vide trekh shtykov — simvolom nepobedimosti sovetskogo oruzhiya, kuznitsey kotorogo isstari byla Tula. Etot monument neodnokratno vosproizvodilsya na znachkakh, posvyashchennykh Tule. V chest’ goroda vypuskalos’ neskol’ko znachkov, na kotorykh Zolotaya Zvezda Geroya sosedstvovala s gerbom Tuly. Vykhodili znachki, oznamenovavshiye 25-letiye pobedy sovetskikh voysk pod Tuloy. Na nikh my vidim Tul’skiy kreml’ i nakoval’nyu. Znachki eti vypuskalis’ moskovskim zavodom «Pobeda».
«Bessmertnyy garnizon»… Pod etim imenem v istoriyu Velikoy Otechestvennoy voshla legendarnaya Brestskaya krepost’. Okolo mesyatsa prodolzhalas’ yeye geroicheskaya oborona, prodemonstrirovavshaya vsemu miru nesgibayemuyu stoykost’ i muzhestvo sovetskikh lyudey. Nebol’shoy garnizon v usloviyakh ostroy nekhvatki boyepripasov, prodovol’stviya, vody i medikamentov skovyval znachitel’nyye sily protivnika.
Prostrelennoye aloye polotnishche, razvevayushcheyesya nad razrushennymi krepostnymi stenami,— takov syuzhet znachka, posvyashchennogo geroicheskim zashchitnikam Bresta. Kholmskiye vorota, do sikh por khranyashchiye na sebe sledy razryvov vrazheskikh snaryadov, zapechatleny na ryade znachkov. Na mnogikh miniatyurakh pokazan glavnyy vkhod memorial’nogo kompleksa «Brestskaya krepost’-geroy», vypolnennyy v vide pyatikonechnoy zvezdy, vysechennoy v ogromnom betonnom bloke.
Slozhilas’ khoroshaya traditsiya — yezhegodno k prazdniku Pobedy vypuskat’ novyye znachki. Tematika ikh raznoobrazna. Zdes’ i ordena «Pobeda» i Otechestvennoy voyny, Spasskaya bashnya Moskovskogo Kremlya i pamyatnik voinu-osvoboditelyu v Treptov-parke v Berline, skul’ptura «Rodina-mat’» v Volgograde i flagi Sovetskikh Vooruzhennykh Sil, feyyerverk prazdnichnogo salyuta. K 40-letiyu Velikoy Pobedy sovetskogo naroda v Velikoy Otechestvennoy voyne vypushcheny desyatki novykh znachkov.
Sozdaniyem eskizov znachkov, posvyashchennykh voyennoy teme, zanyaty izvestnyye khudozhniki, rabotayushchiye v iskusstve metallicheskoy miniatyury. Sredi nikh — V. Nikitin, V. Funtov, L. Malkin, A. Shabanov, A. Pletnev, V. Levchenko, N. Il’ina, V. Abramov, V. Vasin, V. Pitev, T. i YA. Chistyakovy i drugiye.
Vypuskayutsya znachki voyenno-patrioticheskoy tematiki na eksperimental’nom tvorchesko-proizvodstvennom kombinate Khudozhestvennogo fonda RSFSR, moskovskom zavode «Pobeda», volgogradskom opytnom zavode «Suvenir», shakhtinskom zavode «Shakhtmetall», eksperimental’nom tvorchesko-proizvodstvennom kombinate Vserossiyskogo obshchestva okhrany pamyatnikov istorii i kul’tury «Russkiy suvenir» i na drugikh predpriyatiyakh. Dlya izgotovleniya znachkov ispol’zuyetsya prokat tsvetnykh metallov. Listy yego rezhutsya na lenty, pressy shtampuyut zagotovki, kotoryye zatem podvergayutsya slozhnomu khimicheskomu vozdeystviyu. Zavershayushchim etapom stanovitsya pokraska i naneseniye emali. S zavodov put’ znachkov lezhit v magaziny i kioski.
In honor of their exploits in Novorossiysk and in the Lesser Land, many monuments have been erected. In 1968, in commemoration of the massive heroism displayed by Soviet soldiers, guerrillas and underground fighters in the battles for Novorossiysk, a monument “Eternal Flame” was opened on Heroes’ Square of the memorial complex. It is shown on the serial icons “Hero Cities”.
An impressive collection of miniatures depicts monuments to the defenders of Novorossiysk and the Lesser Land. The icons reproduced the “Torpedo boat”, installed on a concrete pedestal in 1968, the monument-ensemble “Line of Defense”, the memorial sign “The Front End of Defense” and the monument “Explosion”, made of large fragments and whole dummy shells, mines and bombs. Its weight is 1,250 kilograms, that is, as much as a deadly metal brought down the enemy for every Soviet soldier for 225 days of defense of the Lesser Land.
In commemoration of the immortal feat of the Soviet soldiers who fell for the liberation of the Crimea, at the top of Mithridates in the hero-city of Kerch, an obelisk of Glory was erected, which is a 22-meter trihedral column on a hexagonal pedestal with three steps. On the front side of the pedestal, facing the city center, the Order of Glory is depicted.
The obelisk is imprinted on most of the icons dedicated to the city-hero Kerch. One of them marked the 30th anniversary of the start of the Kerch-Eltigen landing operation of the troops of the North Caucasian Front, the forces of the Black Sea Fleet and the Azov military flotilla. In the center of the badge is the obelisk, to the left – the Gold Star of the Hero, to the right – the dates “1943-1973” and the laurel branch. At the bottom there is the inscription: “Kerch”. The badge was made at the Republican production creative and experimental combine of the Ukrainian Society for the Protection of Historical and Cultural Monuments.
Tula became an indestructible stronghold on the path of the enemy during the Great Patriotic War. In the southern part of the city, where in October-December 1941 the front line of defense of the Soviet troops passed, a new area arose, which in 1965 received the name Victory Square. A magnificent monument rose up here – a Soviet soldier and a militiaman stood shoulder to shoulder with automatic weapons in their hands, embodying the unity of the army and the people. Monumental figures of the monument merge into a single ensemble with a steel obelisk hanging over the square in the form of three bayonets – a symbol of the invincibility of Soviet weapons, whose forge was Tula for the first time.
This monument was repeatedly reproduced on badges dedicated to Tula. Several icons were issued in honor of the city, on which the Gold Star of Hero co-existed with the coat of arms of Tula. There were signs that marked the 25th anniversary of the victory of the Soviet troops at Tula. On them we see the Tula Kremlin and the anvil. These icons were issued by the Moscow plant “Victory”.
“Immortal garrison” … Under this name the legendary Brest Fortress entered the history of the Great Patriotic War. For about a month, her heroic defense continued, demonstrating to the whole world the unshakable firmness and courage of Soviet people. A small garrison in the conditions of acute shortage of ammunition, food, water and medicines hampered considerable enemy forces.
A scarlet canvas fluttering, fluttering over the ruined fortress walls, is the plot of the badge dedicated to the heroic defenders of Brest. Kholmskie gates, still storing traces of explosions of enemy shells, are imprinted on a number of icons. Many miniatures show the main entrance of the Brest Hero Fortress memorial complex, made in the form of a five-pointed star carved into a huge concrete block.
There was a good tradition – to issue new badges every year for the Victory Day. Themes are diverse. Here, the Order of Victory and the Patriotic War, the Spasskaya Tower of the Moscow Kremlin and the monument to the liberator in Treptow Park in Berlin, the sculpture “Motherland” in Volgograd and the flags of the Soviet Armed Forces, fireworks of the festive salute. Dozens of new icons have been issued for the 40th anniversary of the Great Victory of the Soviet people in the Great Patriotic War.
The creation of sketches of icons devoted to the military theme is occupied by famous artists working in the art of metal miniatures. Among them are V. Nikitin, V. Funtov, L. Malkin, A. Shabanov, A. Pletnev, V. Levchenko, N. Ilyina, V. Abramov, V. Vasin, V. Pitev, T. and J. Chistyakov and others.