Painting of Kizhi churches
Painting of Kizhi churches
Artistic tastes to the ideals of the man of ancient Russia were best manifested in the inner decoration of the temples. Old Russian artists invested all their skills, knowledge and talent in responsible work on decorating the interiors of cathedrals, monastery temples, small parish churches or modest chapels, lost among the vast forest expanses. The history of decorating churches in Russia in the XI – XVII centuries is the history of Old Russian fine arts.
Builders and customers of the temples at first after the adoption of Christianity in Russia tried to imitate the greatness and luxury of the religious buildings of Byzantium – the legislator in all areas of the cultural and political life of the Eastern Christian world. The precious mosaic, composed of a multicolored smalt, shone in the dimness of the Kiev churches, the snow-white marble flickered the carving of the altar barriers, the cathedral floors were laid out of expensive stone rocks brought to Russia by overseas and Russian merchants. The walls of stone churches in the northern and central Russian regions – Novgorod, Pskov, Vladimir, Rostov – were covered with complex fresco paintings.
If the mosaic was not widely spread in our country: smalt was too rare and expensive, then the technique of the fresco, which required fast execution and virtuosity, fell in love with the authors of the picturesque decoration of Russian churches. Until now, wonderful fresco ensembles have been preserved in many cities of ancient Russia. Wall murals of old Russian churches are one of the most important milestones in medieval art, and such masters of frescoes as Theophanes the Greek, Andrei Rublev and Dionysius are rightfully considered classics of world painting. And yet the Old Russian Fine art is first and foremost the art of an icon written on a blackboard.
The main natural wealth of Russia has long been the forest, and most of the churches were built of wood. You can paint the interior of the wooden church with frescoes, but you will not lay out the mosaic. Only the icon could be hung on the wall of the temple or strengthened in carved tails. The tree served as the main material for the creation of the icon, and such material was always available to the ancient Russian painter. This circumstance best explains why this icon was so widespread in Russia. The specificity of the art of Ancient Rus was not in fresco ensembles, but in the absolute predominance of easel painting – icons. The icon was particularly popular in the North, where all the churches were decorated with works of easel painting and wood carvings.
The layout of northern temples, affecting external forms, enchanting with unprecedented beauty decorative details, inside, as a rule, reduced to an elementary architectural scheme. “Cruel winds and severe colds,” wrote Igor Grabar, “forced to restrict the room of the temple offensively close frames and lowered all the stunning grandeur of the ottomans, cubes, barrels, teremes and chapters to the degree of simple decoration … It should not be thought, however, that entering the inside waits for disappointment only. Some of them and inside make an irresistible impression and sometimes are directly struck by their harsh simplicity, against the background of which the subtler and more refined is played by that modest decoration, which is concentrated mainly on the iconostasis. The iconostasis is almost the only place inside the temple where the people, so sensitive to the pattern and rhythm, gave vent to their decor to a marvelous instinct. Indeed, it is difficult to think of a better combination than the rows of these wonderful icons, playing with beautiful colors, like glowing with semi-precious stones, touched in some places with gold, and these strict, blue-black logs of the walls. ” These words can serve as an epigraph to the description of the interior of each architectural monument located in the Kizhi Reserve, but above all they belong to the most precious pearl of Kizhi – the Transfiguration Church.
Time before recognition changed the original appearance of the interior of the Transfiguration church. In its present form, its interior decoration consists of paintings and wooden carvings. A lot of artists and sculptors worked on decorating the Transfiguration Church for a whole century. The handwriting of the icon painters is different, the techniques of woodcarvers are different and different from one another. The simple and laconic pictorial language of the icons of the lower tier is replaced by solemn and festive painting in the three above-arranged registers of the iconostasis.
Great changes underwent the internal appearance of the Church of the Transfiguration in 1759, when, as the inscription on one of the planks above the entrance indicates, work was done to restore the church. Then, probably, the main part of the present iconostasis was written. The ancient decoration, preserved in the temple from the day of construction, was part of the renovated iconostasis. Over the following decades, new icons were brought in, which replaced obsolete or hung out next to the old images. However, the internal appearance of the church has not lost its specific character and strict appearance typical of the interiors of the northern temples. A single style of Old Russian fine art, a solid canon and following certain artistic and technical principles allowed the masters who worked in the Preobrazhensky church in different periods to maintain the general tone when decorating the interior, not to lose the main key and not to destroy the decoration system of the wooden church.
The process of penetrating the essence of Old Russian painting, mastering the complex artistic language of the icon is extremely difficult for a modern man, brought up on the art of real, specifically reflecting life phenomena. Iconography uses symbolic language. Opa has its own strict laws, called canons. The canonical framework never broke with ancient masters. The requirements of the canon ne, however, were a “barrier” for gifted icon painters. Talented masters found the most diverse solutions of the same topic. The work of Novgorod, Pskov, Suzdal, Moscow, Rostov artists is distinguished by original and individual gifts. Each of these cities created works of art that differ in the variety of artistic techniques, united by common humanistic aspirations and search for spiritual perfection.
More than a millennium there is art in Russia, and as many centuries there is a history of Old Russian painting. The creators of many of its monuments are natives of the people, therefore, with good reason, one can talk about the folk roots of ancient Russian art.
The history of Ancient Rus, rich in glorious deeds, the appearance and manners of people, the nature of the native land as reflected in the fine art of the Middle Ages. Particularly palpable is the folk essence of the old Russian painting in the northern monuments.
In the folk painting that existed in the North, less professional skills than in the classical Russian icons, wore northern art in that it was closely associated with the majestic life of man, adorned with its stern beauty its many-to-no-week routine and festive leisure.
The creators of the northern icons lived in the thick of the people, learned the hard work of their craft from the masters of older generations. What an excellent understanding of the most important foundations of medieval art culture they show in their works! Northern icons are unique, as unique monuments of painting of Pskov, Novgorod, Tver and other ancient centers. They attract to themselves the ability to talk about beauty simply and at the same time sublime, sincere and lyrical.
The icons found in Karelia are far from their worth from the unique people of world significance. Yes, and they should not be compared with the oldest picturesque relics of the 12th and 13th centuries, with the fantastic creations of Theophanes the Greek, with the virtuosic creations of the Pskov masters or the exquisite images of the glorified Dionysius. Monuments of the northern iconography differ in other qualities: the sincerity of the artistic narrative and the closeness to the real, earthly life. Once seen, they always remain in your memory.
Survey of the picturesque samples decorating the interior of the Transfiguration Church – a classical monument of northern architecture, turns into an interesting acquaintance with the fine art of ancient Zaonezhie. An irreplaceable detail is the lost painting of the huge “sky” of the Transfiguration Church, according to the icons of the 17th – 18th centuries, reinforced in the tails of the lower tier of the iconostasis, give an idea of the art of the artists of the Zaonezh.
The intensive architectural construction that unfolded and Zaonezhye in the XVII – XVIII centuries, served as the main reason for the intensive development of the local school of painting. The dozens of small chapels and complex wooden structures, such as the ensemble in Kizhi, numerous churches in Zaonezhie, were decorated with a large number of icons. Novgorod and Moscow could no longer supply their art products to the North in the required quantity, and local artists became the authors of all icons of this time.
The late era in the painting of Zaonezhie, whose monuments are represented in the iconostasis of the Transfiguration Church, is characterized primarily by a clear distinction of the artistic manner of the masters who worked in different areas of Zaonezhie. Almost every large village, grouped near the local painters, has a special style and individual handwriting.
The common phenomenon in the painting of this time was the desire to transfer the real, to the story of the surrounding reality.
Icons of the 17th and 18th centuries abound with detailed narratives about the life of the villagers, and often the artist, who began to illustrate the history of the saint, is distracted, turns to the depiction of a familiar and familiar everyday life. And the painters try to choose themes easier and more easily.
Especially popular among the authors of the local iconostasis of the Transfiguration Church was the use of illustrations of literary monuments. Scenes from Christian prose most easily succumbed to a free interpretation based on the knowledge of the life of the local population. What inexhaustible imagination should have been to northern artists who found a lot of a variety of picturesque solutions, despite having set a limited range of themes and stories!
Acquaintance with each icon of the Transfiguration Church is a knowledge of the life and culture of Zaonezhye.
It would be in vain to seek from artists of the 17th and 18th centuries the features of that pictorial perfection that admires in the icons of the 15th century. Before the masters of the late era is another task: to know and explain the world around us. It is no accident that in the monuments of this era a big role is played by the plot, and the picturesque elements often remain as if outside the scope of the artist’s attention. But the painting of the local series of the Transfiguration Church can not be confused with the works of other areas of the Russian North, the manner of writing of local artists is so unique, their creative handwriting is original. Immediacy, sincerity, naive world perception and conquering simplicity characterize the icons “George in the Life”, “Lona Abrahamovo”, “Pokrov”, “The Dormition” and others.
The artistic imagination and ingenuity of folk artists are inexhaustible. Religious stories they interpret in their own way, transferring the legendary stories into the world of everyday life. Artistic architectural decorations, images of antique palaces and eastern temples in the works of local artists of the Preobrazhensky iconostasis give way to wooden buildings, in which the peasants lived. Precious, decorated with gold ornaments is replaced by modest folk costumes written with great taste. The sharp eye of the artist notices the most interesting features of life.
The icons of the Transfiguration Church tell about the life of the local population no less fully than the most accurate chronicle or chronicle. Often, artists with maximum reliability depict in their works details of monastic buildings and local landscapes. In the architectural design of the icons you can see the multi-headed churches, striking with a fantastic pattern of silhouettes, and strong, folded from huge logs walls of the huts. in which the Zonezhye peasants lived. Wooden buildings painters place on the background of the local landscape. Words, in songs and bylinas, they sing of their native nature.
Unusual decorativeness, due to the mean and precise expressiveness of the drawing, the lack of careful cutting of faces, the love for a flat, ornamental beginning, characteristic of folk art, and most importantly, the simplicity and poetic imagery of thinking, the absence of vague philosophical narratives about icons are the main features that distinguish the monuments of this circle.
Samples of fine art from the local series of the Preobrazhensky iconostasis are radically different from works created in other areas of Ancient Rus. Picturesque features and techniques that underlie the attribution and dating of the monuments of ancient Russian art, among local authors differed in their distinctive identity.
The main excellent kizhskih icons – a specific set of used paints. While the capital’s masters willingly used colorful pigments imported from abroad, northern artists worked with local colors.
The local iconostasis of the Church of the Transfiguration consists of icons written directly for her, as well as picturesque specimens from other churches. Most likely the latter are written in the nearby villages. Perhaps, their authors were the artists of a large village of Tipinitsa, located near the Kizhi Island.
Among the seventeen icons of the local series, some stand out with high artistic qualities or represent an undoubted historical and ethnographic interest.
The local row opens with the iconic “Zosima and Savvatpis” pictured in the left corner. Solovetsky monks are represented in the midship with a peculiar layout of the monastery founded by them. The artist copies the appearance of the northern monastery to the details. In the twenty-two hallmarks of life, the main moments of the ascetic life are depicted. Along with scenes of miracles and legendary phenomena, the painter tries to tell about the difficult life of the northern monks. Here Zosima and Savvaty in the “Little Lodean”, along with Herman, swim across the “abyss of the sea.” The artist paints with dirty strokes a severe White Sea, rocky banks of banks. Other hallmarks tell of the daily work of the inhabitants of the Solovetsky Islands: “Zosma and Hermap dig the earth with hoes”, “Zosima cuts the tree into a cell structure”.
Remarkable color of the icon of the icon. The dense dark blue paint is combined with bright gold, creating a mood of special solemnity, restrained and in the north a considerable.
The holiday of the Intercession has long enjoyed great popularity in Russia, for it expressed the people’s hidden dream of divine protection. The idea of the intercession of the Mother of God for the people underlies all the scenes in the hallmarks framing the icon “Pokrov”. The author depicted a mysterious vision of the Intercession in the Vlaherna Temple of Constantinople, following the traditional iconographic scheme. His follower, who wrote the frame several decades later, gave greater freedom to his creative imagination and focused on the story of miraculous phenomena of the Virgin to people. Severely ill, relaxed, holy fools and convicts, all who seek help, are written by the author with special sympathy and warmth. Composition stamps are characterized by laconicism and ultimate completeness.
The icon “Transfiguration”, located on the right hand of the Royal Gates, is a classic monument of northern painting. According to the Gospel legend, Christ together with the disciples James, John and Peter went one day to pray to Mount Tabor. During the prayer, his face “will be enlightened, like the sun”, “the garments of his life are white as snow,” and the prophets Moses and Elijah appeared to him. Amazed by this miracle, the disciples fell, unable to look at the fantastic light emanating from the teacher. Kizhi artist illustrated the legend very laconically, discarding the details. Its art is symbolic, every detail is a kind of a hieroglyph, skipping which one can lose the meaning of the whole phrase.
Working on his icon, the local painter certainly had on hand samples of icon painting or miniatures that came from the capital’s workshops. He did not use any of them for literal copying. Only a northern artist could lead such a detailed and unhurried story
about a wonderful evangelical event, while many famous icons of the “Transfiguration” are imbued with passionate dynamics and unearthly energy. Kizhi monument attracts calmness, restraint, and the characters move slowly, like a solemn mystery.
The icons of the local series of the Transfiguration Church are characterized by laconism and the absence of excessive diversity – qualities so characteristic of nature
North. Biblical heroes in the depiction of northern painters resemble broad-shouldered, rugged conquerors of the lake edge.
Close acquaintance with the paintings of the local series makes it possible to compile an integral picture of the evolution of the cultural life of the inhabitants of Karelia in the distant past. Apparently the spiritual world of a resident of the North at that time was wide and diverse. The works of the Zaonezh masters convince in the great striving of man for the knowledge of the surrounding world, they sing the best qualities of the human soul.
Picturesque works decorating the interiors of Kizhi churches, as well as those kept in zapadniki, have been restored or still in need of it. They are under the supervision of specialists.
Almost all icons have reached our days covered with opaque lacquer films or records. Old Russian artists themselves prepared the necessary colors in their work. Found on the site or brought from distant edges pigments were rubbed on the emulsion of egg yolk and then applied to the ground. Over the years, the emulsion solidified, the paint layer acquired exceptional strength and resistance to all the destructive effects of time. But the works of icon painters have already fallen into unfavorable conditions from the moment of their appearance. A thin film of lacquer covering the painting and giving a great sonority and richness to the colorful planes, began to turn black in the dark and damp premises of the churches. Soot and soot from candles accelerated this process, and through CO – 70 years a dark, opaque veil hid the true face of author’s painting.
In ancient times, ne know how to restore painting in the modern sense of the word. Therefore, before a big holiday, a random artist was often invited, who applied a new image over the darkened layer. The renewed surface also darkened and was again covered with an image. On some icons we find 5 – 6 layers of different records at a time.
… The black board is split into two parts. With the naked eye, it is difficult to distinguish anything resembling a painting. But here the artist-restorer puts on the surface of the board a compress, using a special chemical solvent. Pass the minutes, exactly as long as it takes to completely soften the black film, under which the ancient painting is hidden. Having removed the compress, the restorer, with careful movements of the scalpel, removes the darkened varnish, the late layers of the records – and under his hands come to life, the precious paints light up. Bright cinnabar, emerald green, sounding as joyfully as the rain-washed grass, and ohrist color picked up with great tact.
The work of the restorer is similar to the work of an archaeologist who understands the complex labyrinth of cultural strata. Modern achievements of spiders in many ways facilitated the painstaking process of restoring ancient painting. The X-ray machine helps to establish the presence of the author’s layer and its preservation before starting the clearing of the icon. The roentgenogram serves as a supporting document, without which in the past few days there are held restoration of unique works of painting by ancient masters. Infrared and ultraviolet rays reveal the pattern and various composite details from under the darkest layers of the old varnish. And, of course, chemical research and new materials offered by chemists became the main help of restorers. Special laboratories, working in close contact with restorers, produce solvents that facilitate the clearing of icons.
Restoration work in Kizhi, related to the restored picturesque decoration of churches, began in the mid 50-ies. Then restorers, among whom, first of all, V. Bryusov and G. Zharenkov should be mentioned, with the help of the simplest solvents, several icons of the Preobrazhensky church were liberated from the darkened drying oil and records, and the “sky” of the Vasilyevskaya chapel was restored. However, the buttons of the local Church of the Transfiguration Church remained mostly undisclosed.
Restorers began full restoration of chain monuments in 1966, when a team of restorers from the workshop of Academician I. Grabar (V. Zborovsky, V. Belov, K. Sheinkman and S. Yamschikov) began the cleaning of the icons of the local church of the Transfiguration Church. As a result, the frame of the icon “Pokrov” (described above) was brought to the display state, and, most importantly, the painting “Our Lady of Tikhvin” was saved. The last icon, stowed in a cheap metal frame, was considered alien to the rest of the local series, and the question of replacing it with another monument was repeatedly discussed. But already trial clearing showed that the painting of this icon refers to the time of building the temple. In the restored form, “Our Lady of Tikhvin” is an important link of the local iconostasis of the Transfiguration Church.
Restorers of the workshop named after academician I. Grabar G. Kuznetsov and V. Malyshev went to Kizhi for several years to complete the works on opening icons of the local church of the Transfiguration Church.
At present, the picturesque complex of the local line is completely restored. On the agenda for a complex, on a very important issue of bringing the exposition status of the remaining parts of the picturesque decoration of the Central Kizhi temple.
In recent years Kizhi icons have been repeatedly exhibited at various exhibitions in Moscow and Leningrad. Exhibition “Restoration of Old Russian Painting in the USSR. 1917 – 1977 »was composed of the best works, opened by the restorers of various workshops of the country. On the cover of the prospectus, the State Historical, Architectural and Ethnographic Museum-Reserve “Kizhi” is listed among the exhibitors. If Petrozavodsk Museum of Fine Arts presented to the exhibition magnificent examples of northern painting restored by Moscow and Leningrad specialists, the Kizhi Reserve showed the work of its restorer I. Gurvich. Restoration of the picturesque decoration of the church of Lazar of Murom is an important discovery in the history of Old Russian art. Several years of painstaking work, first in Moscow, and then on the spot in Kizhi, it took a restorer to return from the non-existence the original precious color of northern painting of the 16th century.
Restoration work in Kizhi continues. Many remarkable monuments still await clearing, one can hope for new and surprising discoveries. Zaonezhye, which has preserved to this day the pearls of oral folk poetry – epics, songs, fairy tales – is also the richest treasury of ancient Russian painting.
New discoveries of works of northern painting
In recent years, the development of the museum shows a tendency to more and more in-depth study of the accumulated material, systematic work is being carried out to disclose the most interesting painterly ensembles. Return painting original look – the task of restorers.
Recently, another valuable monument of antiquity – the iconostasis of the Church of the Resurrection of Lazarus – has been revealed. From the original composition to the pass came: the royal gates (the central entrance to the altar) with columns and six icons of the Deesis chip, reflecting the idea of intercession for the human race on the day of the “terrible judgment”. In the second half of the 19th century, the iconostasis was supplemented with an icon of the end of the 16th century – “The Savior Not Made by Hands” and two icons of the 17th century – with the northern altar door depicting Rah’s “sensible robber” and the icon “Daniel Pillar”.
After the removal of the late layers, it became clear that the main core of the iconostasis was made in the traditions of the Novgorod school of painting. The identity of pictorial techniques is striking: the splitting of background and fields, that is, the framing, the painting system and spaces. However, with a more careful study of these icons, the features of the Novgorod province of the first half of the 16th century are manifested – some amorphous image in comparison with the classical Novgorod, the loss inherent in the works of his school of dynamism.
The work on Deesis was probably not done by one master. This is evidenced by a different approach to the straightforward, graphical writing of the figures of Flora and Laurus, a strict system of imposing gaps in their clothes and a soft, free painting in the depiction of Peter and Paul. The icons of the archangels Michael and Gabriel do not have pronounced handwriting moments.
To understand the figurative structure of Old Russian iconography, an important attitude to its so-called “material basis” is important. Strong, weighty plaques, chalk or alabaster ground, which are hard to yield to the will of the icon-painter, the more firmly hold his intention, the more subtle they capture the characteristic, unique features of the artist’s personality.
The palette of Old Russian painters, in particular those who followed the traditions of Novgorod in the 16th century, consists mainly of deaf, earthy colors. The smaller group consists of pigments of a different type: cinnabar (red paint, crystalline granular mercury), azurite (blue mineral), vivianite (blue ocher), copper green (artificially obtained and natural colors – bright copper, mountain greens, malachite), auripigment bright yellow natural paint with golden sparkles), realgar (orange variety of arsenic sulphide) and some other colors. With a strong increase, these crystalline pigments are similar to precious stones; Auripigment and realgar are cast in gold, and cinnabar has absorbed a multicolor solar spectrum.
Masters very carefully use these precious colors, rarely allowing nm to sound independently, in full force. They, as a rule, sound them basic, bearing a color of earth colors. Especially noticeable is the clever virtuosity in the mixing of white and black pigments. The carrier of white color is voiced by cinnabar, azurite, auripigment, and the ratio of impurities is determined by the color on which white should lie, and the overall color. The same can be said about the black color.
All of the above applies to the main group of icons Lazarus iconostasis.
The royal gates are also dated to the first half of the 16th century, although their execution is less canonical. At first glance, attention is drawn to the exaggerated elongated figure of the saints, not coordinated with the relative stiffness of the remaining characters. Probably, this is a consequence of two reasons.
The first is that the Basil the Great and John Chrysostom, depicted on the doors of the royal gates, were called the fathers of the church, as if the pillars on which the church held. The second reason involves a purely formal moment: the proportions of the leaflets urge to draw images. In the free imposition of gaps, colors and shadows, not united by a single rhythmic solution, the provincial uncertainty of the ancient painter is felt. This, however, does not apply to the painting of columns from the royal gates. Confidently drawn “solid” figures, depicted on the columns, completely in line with Novgorod art. Unexpectedly it seems only a vivid ornament in the lower part of the columns, as if completely transferred from household paintings.
The icon “The Savior Not Made by Hands” is very interesting. Judging by a number of signs, the time of its writing is the end
16th century. Most likely it is a provincial copy of the now lost more ancient pattern. Iconography itself – a description of the subjects and compositions that took place in the iconography, with all their characteristic features – goes back to the XIII century and in the Russian version is called “Savior wet brad”.
The icon is exclusively decorative: a dark resonant background, a halo, marked only by a pearl rim and a wide cinnabar cross, a calm, reddish face. The green background was originally green, with a small admixture of green. The current color effect was given by the yellowed linseed oil.
The icons “Prudent Robber Rah” and “Daniel Stolpik” are examples of northern painting of the XVII century. Coloring them is limited – earthen brown pigments, mint, white, black. The drawing is highly stylized and naive. But at the same time the icons give an impression of integrity, laconicism, completeness.
The fate of the iconostasis of the Intercession Church is interesting. Until recently, it was believed that the decoration of the times of its construction was not preserved, since in the XIX century it was replaced by late icons of handicraft work. Indeed, in 1865 the titular iconostasis was liquidated. Its place was occupied by the iconostasis in the style of “pseudoampir”. But the paintings themselves remained in place. Their composition was only replenished with “voluntary donations of believers” – late icons, written according to official church canons and nothing common with genuine ancient Russian painting.
In 1957, architect A. V. Opolovnikov reconstructed the iconostasis of the Intercession Church in Kizhi. The original system of the four-tiered iconostasis was restored. From the existing pictorial funds, the corresponding icons were selected. Until recently, it was believed that this iconostasis is a composite, that its icons mainly come from the village of Cosmozero and the Tambitsa trees. However, the studies carried out in connection with the disclosure of the painting of the two upper ranks, the Deesis and the Prophetic, force a change in the established opinion.
During the reconstruction of the iconostasis, it included icons, mostly in the XIX century already located in the Church of the Intercession. And if earlier it was believed that they are examples of Zaonezhsky painting
16th – 18th centuries, and the already unveiled feasts were singled out for a special group of icons, but now there is no doubt that the icons of the prophetic, Deesis and the main group of icons of the festive series form a single whole. Their origin from the Kosmozerskaya Church and the Tambitskaya Chapel is excluded, since earlier they were part of the iconostasis of a much larger size. But already in the XIX century, these icons were also Kizhi, as evidenced by the text of the inscriptions on the back of some of them. This was once mentioned by VG Bryusova (in the “Guide to the Kizhi Pogost”, 1957).
Analyzing the stylistic features of the disclosed icons, we can conclude that they were performed neither in the territory of Karelia in the late XVII-early XVIIIth Inca, under the strong influence of the Moscow masters of Central Russia. In this case, their dating is shifted to the XVII century.
And in general, this large iconographic ensemble is minimized by light, festive colors. The most successful icons are the two holidays: “Annunciation” and “Entrance to Jerusalem.” But they also feel the trend of a new time – in the artist’s palette paint is used that are alien to Old Russian painting; dry, hot lines of sections lose their internal saturation. Their function is only the separation of color planes. There is a fascination with rounded forms with the general simplicity of the spatial solution. The dominant role is gained by the external decor. Color combinations are still harmonious. A linear line is musical.
In the composition of the current iconostasis, the icon “The Savior of Smolensk” deserves special attention, dating from the end of the 16th century. As it turned out, it was originally Pokrovsky, moreover, it was probably preserved from the predecessor of the present Intercession Church. According to this icon, one can judge the level of mastery of the northern icon painters on the fringes of the 16th-17th centuries, about how sensitively they perceived the new trends of the all-Russian culture.
The discoveries presented in this book allow us to shift the upper limit of direct Novgorod influence somewhat, transferring it for some works to the first half of the 16th century. Subsequently, undoubtedly, Moscow’s influence increased. Do not underestimate the moment of direct ties with Central Russia during this period.
Of course, general conclusions can not be drawn on the basis of an analysis of a single work. And the rights of ES Smirnov, believing that “The iconography of Karelia can hardly be regarded as an independent school. As a rule, the formation of local schools requires the presence of art centers, where stylistic techniques are developed and improved, where the masters can get skills, adopt the experience of previous generations, which provides “stylistic continuity.
New icons replenished with the number of discovered monuments Karelin, characterize mainly not local painting, but formative influences, under the influence of which there is what is called “northern letters”.
Painting of Kizhi churches
Church of the Resurrection of Lazarus
Church of the Transfiguration.
The Intercession Church