Palaces of Poland
Palaces of Poland. As in other European countries, Poland has preserved many medieval castles built by the Crusaders, Teutonic Knights, and families of Polish tycoons. Today these ancient majestic structures are one of the main attractions of Poland and its architectural highlights.
Thus, the most popular and largest gothic castle complex, not only in Poland, but all over the world, is Malbork – the oldest capital of the Teutonic Order. It occupies an area of more than 20 hectares and is considered the most large-scale construction created by the hands of a man from brick. In 1997, Malbork was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.
Its history dates back to 1275, when the construction of the Grand Master’s residence of the Teutonic Order began on this site. The structure was supposed to play a defensive role, as evidenced by the thickness of its mighty walls and the use of defensive equipment. Do not forget the builders and its beauty, using wall painting, carved and figured decor elements.
Today Malbork is the three most beautiful castles, united in one castle ensemble. This is truly a unique architectural monument of mastery of medieval architects, which for seven centuries admires its greatness and boldness of structural solutions. Some things in Malbork are really unique. Among them – a fragment of central heating, which in medieval Europe was first used here.
Second after Malbork in size, the castle of Poland is Wawel. The second largest, but not the most important. This royal residence, in its importance for the country, is compared with the Moscow Kremlin and is certainly a must for the tourist route when visiting Poland, its important symbol. Wawel Castle Complex, consisting of a cathedral, a system of castle fortifications and the royal castle itself, has towered over the Vistula for a thousand years. He witnessed many historical events in the life of the country. Already in the XI century, Wawel had the status of residence of Polish monarchs, and in the XIV century, when Krakow became the capital of the Polish state, it was, without exaggeration, the main construction of the country. Of course, after transferring the capital to Warsaw, Wawel lost its importance as a royal residence, but not as a monument of architecture.
After experiencing a period of oblivion and destruction, in 1930, after it was completely restored, Wawel once again becomes an official residence, and part of its structures act as a museum.
The third largest castle complex in Poland is Ksieng. This Polish castle was built in the 13th century near Wroclaw. It became the largest castle in the sląskie Province and one of the largest in Europe. Today it is one of the important landmarks of the country, a symbol of old Poland. Ksieng is open to tourists and attracts the guests of the country with rich interiors, a variety of architectural solutions and styles: from Gothic to Baroque. The most interesting among the 400 rooms of Xenia are Italian, Chinese, and also the hall of Maximilian.
Beautiful and courtyard of the castle complex, consisting of 12 garden terraces, decorated with elegant fountains, smoothly passing into the protected park of Xenia. Particularly beautiful here in summer, during exhibitions of flowers and bushes.
In a beautiful dendrological park, one of the largest in Poland, there is another castle – Kournik, which gave the name of the Polish city of the same name. It was built in the XV century. True, Kurnik received his present form much later – in the first half of the 19th century. Today this beautiful Neo-Gothic structure attracts thousands of tourists. They are given a solid library with a fund numbering more than 300 thousand volumes, as well as a museum in which exhibits of military equipment, interior, porcelain, sculptures, paintings and fabrics are presented.
Neo-Gothic style can be traced in the architectural solution of the castle complex of Moshn, located in the south of Poland. However, in addition to the neo-Gothic, in the Moshno Castle complex, built in the XVII century, you can see the presence of other architectural directions. Thus, its central part is made in the Baroque style, and in the later annexes elements of neo-Renaissance and neo-Gothic are used. The elegant Moshno Castle is adorned with hundreds of refined towers.
Krasichinsky Castle is considered one of the most beautiful castles in Poland. It was erected in the south-eastern part of the country, near the city of Peremyshl, in the late XVI – early XVII century in the Renaissance style. And although this magnificent castle complex was built as a defensive object, the architects tried to make it simultaneously and unusually beautiful. Today it is a real gem of Renaissance architecture.
And one of the most important architectural monuments of mannerism in Poland is the castle complex Leschinsky. It was built in 1606 for the Leshchinsky family in the valley of the Vistula River in the town of Baranav, in the southeastern part of the country. Today it is a worthy cultural center of the region, called “little Wawel”, which includes a historical museum, a conference hall and a hotel.