Here is what is noted in the “Survey of the Transcaspian region”: “Saryk women in Elatani prepare patterned and simple felt for several thousand rubles” K The well-known connoisseur of pre-revolutionary Turkmen way of life FA Mikhailov, pointing out the great role in the life of Turkmens of various felt products, distinguished among they are littered, dark and decorated with a colored pattern. Indeed, the Turkmens-iomutes, especially the part that led the semi-settled and sedentary life (chomur) in the villages of Hasan-kuli and Gumish-tepe, as well as the Turkmen-Ogurdzhali perfectly mastered the technique of producing excellent quality bilateral felt ornaments, of which wrote the pre-revolutionary authors. Pastoralists-nomads (charva) were able to wield only one-sided patterned felt, simpler, Patterned felts.
Unlike the Kazakhs and Kirghiz, as well as from the semi-nomadic Uzbeks in the past, who knew several kinds of felt ornamentation, the Turkmen as well as the Karakalpaks and part of the Uzbeks created their felt carpets in one way – the technique of the rolled up pattern. At the same time, the technology of patterned felt production differed from that which was known to other Central Asian peoples. While Kyrgyz, Kazakhs and part of Uzbeks lay out a pattern on a felt felt of a weak felling from a colored wool or apply a pattern cut from a thin colored felt to a semi-finished base, the Turkmens create a pattern, then cover it with a colored wool foundation of a nightmare. Thus, the pattern of patterned Turkmen nightmares is more durable and durable than similar felts of the above peoples; the pattern of ornament in Turkmen koshmas is more strict and clear than the vague pattern of Kazakh and Kirghiz blending with the background. However, due to the peculiarities of the material and production techniques, the pattern is most clearly shown on the kosmuses already in use for some time, from which the top layer of wool is erased, and not on new ones, where the pattern is covered with haze.
Often there are ornamented felt carpets of rectangular shape with slightly rounded edges. Their sizes range from 4 x 2.5 m to 1.5 x 1 m, but medium sized mounds of 2.5 x 1.5 m predominate.
In addition to white and natural dark brown colors for koshm often used still red in different shades, black, blue, dull green and yellow. Red with black and white colors usually prevail over others and determine the overall color of the product. The felts of the population of the Middle Amu Darya are distinguished by the brightness of the flowers and an unusual combination of bright yellow with raspberry, purple and green.
A characteristic feature of the Turkmen felt carpet is the contouring of the pattern in contrasting color. Outcropping is not only taken when laying out the central pattern, but also in the intermediate drawing and in the rim. The edge (hem) of the nightmare – always monochrome – is made of wool dark brown or black with a slight addition of sulfur.
Nowadays, as before, a patterned nightmare is a necessary accessory of everyday life, an object of decorative decoration of a room or a yurt. It covers the entire floor in two to three layers; Spare nightmares are stacked together with blankets and pillows for packing. In the western regions of the republic, where livestock and yurt prevail in agriculture, it is better preserved, as well as in some other places, they produce large U-shaped felt felts (6-6.5 m in width), they cover almost entirely the entire floor area of the yurt, leaving open only a place for the hearth. In addition to the felt felt ornaments mentioned above, small rugs for prayer (namazlyk) are still found here and there.
The production of patterned felt, as well as carpet weaving, among Turkmen is a solely female occupation, and in recent times even more massive than the production of carpets. Unlike such kinds of folk arts and crafts, as, for example, jewelry production or pottery, the tinkering of Turkmens did not turn into a professional occupation and therefore did not become a family profession. In each family, the mother teaches her daughters to embroider, weave carpets and wove patterned felt. We do not know craftsmen who would only do shambling, more often they have some other, main occupation and only occasionally, usually in the summer season, help fellow villagers to wove patterned felt. So, from those masters with whom we had to meet, Tachsaltan Mammadova from the village of Adzhiyab of the Hasan-Kuliy district in 1968 worked as an accountant of the collective farm, Kurbangul Babayeva from the Takhta-Bazar district – the chairman of the village council, Amandursun Purliyeva from the village of Kaahka – the teacher, Mama Nuriyeva and Bibi Hodzhaberdyev from the kolkhoz named after the XXII Party Congress of the Bayram-Aliy rayon – the collective farmer. At the same time, they were known among the neighbors as skilled craftsmen in laying out a pattern.
Patterns on the nightmares are very diverse, but typical for all Turkmen. As always in folk art, we almost never find the same patterns. And nevertheless, according to the composition of the nightmare, Turkmen quite clearly fit into five main types: three of them – medallion, checkerboard and net compositions coincide with those traced by VG Moshkova in the Salor and Saryk small carpet items, the other two, more characteristic for western and northern regions of the republic-two-fold horizontal and with vortex outlets, are close to the first two compositions. Felt carpets with a net composition, in which the color pattern is predominant, are most often found among Turkmens of the Murghab oasis and, first of all, in the saryks. Ornamental motifs of felt carpets in their semantic meaning are generally uniform with carpet and motifs of embroidery, but are usually perceived differently as a consequence of the specifics of the material and the nature of the fabrication of the thing.
The pattern of the central field (göl) usually defines the name of the felt carpet. The most common, especially in the northern and western regions, are koshmas with patterns of “goch kele” (head of a ram), “goch” (ram), “gocak” (ornament in the form of mutton horns, literally not translated), “goch buynyz” (mutton horns), which are figures with one-sided or two-sided curls, vortex sockets of a more or less complex composition. In the central regions of the republic such patterns are called “itt gel” (iomut pattern). There are patterns – “gelin barmak” (finger of the daughter-in-law), “tuynukli keche” (tyunuk – the upper part of the yurt consisting of bent poles), “syunshuk tumar” (tumar-amulet), “tumar gol”, etc. To the name pattern of bilateral koshm often add the word “esche”: “Tuynuk eshe”, “eshe sarychiyan” (yellow scorpion), “eshe”. The pattern on some of the nightmares is called “dorot gosenek” (four holes in the lattice). The white background between the figures is the yurt grid, the dark figures are the holes in it (“gosenek”).
Sometimes the whole koshma gets a name on the pattern of the rim, among which most often there are: “hamtosis” (it does not translate), “jigir breathe” (teeth of the chigir), “potato” (nipple) or “barmak” (palaea) and “sarychian”. The last Uzo, the Shikoko oasppo-tracted throughout the republic (in Tekeans it was better known as the “caylan” – an elected one or “huyruk basin” – the tail of a hound), was most typical for kyme in felt products of iomut. Sarychiyan, representing otnostronnie curls in the form of waves, sometimes alternating in color, is a very ancient motif, noted in the ornamentation of ancient Khorezm in ancient times.
Patterned western Turkmen koshmas, as indicated, are ornamented from two sides, and retain a strictly traditional pattern, varying very slightly and most often only depending on the size of the product. The field of the felt carpet is usually divided by the master into 6-10 cells, 3-5 on each side of the main line, dividing it horizontally. Figure – on the front side of the carpet and is often called “esche”. It consists of each cell from a vortex outlet in the center and horn-shaped vortices at the corners separated by 3-4 columns. Ornament of the wrong side is formed from horn-shaped patterns and curls and at first sight is perceived as independent, although compositionally is one with a pattern on the front side and never meets separately. Usually for each group of Turkmens their patterns of felt carpets are characteristic, and often the same element of the pattern in different groups of Turkmens has its own semantics, not always amenable to interpretation, and its favorite coloring. Thus, according to the master of the village of Dzhanakhyr of the Kyzyl-Arvat district, Kumsagul Bayramova, the yomut do not like the “gypyrga” (rib) pattern, which is widespread in ata, since it consists of a large accumulation of yellow and white flowers, while Yomut prefer red and green colors. Love for red is also manifested in the fact that the most elegant felt carpets, often found in iomutov, are those in which the background is laid out of wool of red color. They are usually called “narynchy” (pomegranate).
Patterned felts of Turkmen masters
In Kaakhka in 1969, the handyman Amandursun Purlyeva, along with the traditional patterns – “tumar”, “gocha-kelle” – we met also those who were called “contour-gel” and “samovar-gel”. A nightmare with a similar pattern in the neighboring Tedzha district was called a “gorchok”. Master Ogulgozel Orazgeldyeva from the collective farm “Tazele” of the Tedzhensky district, taking as a basis the “buynyz” pattern, widespread in the neighboring Serakh region near the salors, introduced a number of new elements into the rim, making the central part of the koshma less contrast, thereby reducing attention to the curls “Buynyz”) in the center of the field. The white band of the background, formed by two rows of a pattern and running horizontally in the center of the carpet, became even brighter from this. She called her motif “gol channel”.