Popular industries of Moldova
Popular industries of Moldova
The nature of Moldavia, our southern republic, is characterized by a great peculiarity. In the south, steppes stretch, in the central regions – massifs of deciduous forests, in the north – the forest steppe. Everywhere are endless fields, gardens, vineyards, a lot of beautiful flowers.
The house of a rural resident of Moldova outside and inside is beautifully decorated. Deep inner bonding is combined with the surrounding beautiful nature. Both nature and dwelling are a single world of human habitation.
Especially beautiful are the houses of the central, forest strip of Moldavia, along the banks of the river Reuta, in the villages of Braneshty, Furcany. Previously, they were more common at home with straw roofs. In front of the house is a fence with massive carved gates, which have a supermarket, decorated with a multi-faceted geometric thread and cut openwork ribs.
The thread was varied – flat and cut, openwork.
Houses in the central regions of Moldova, besides the carving, had multi-colored paintings. Recently, in the wall painting, not only traditional motifs of flower bouquets in vases have been used, but also plots drawn from print media, television shows, from professional works of art that have been seen. Such a wall decorative painting in the work of the master in his art style approaches the machine tool primitive.
With a carving and colorful paintings crowned with a decorated forged smoke, the house looks solemnly and festively.
The houses of the northern regions were also decorated with woodcarving, but somewhat poorer. Their distinctive feature was the “plumage” made of carved wood on the roof of the roof, and the gable was decorated with a large socket – the sun, as well as in the Belarusian houses.
A large peculiarity of the house is given parts of carved stone. The hollows are lovingly decorated with lush, like canopy boots. In the art of decoration of wells, the respectful peasant’s attitude towards water was affected.
Often the workpieces were made of piercing girders and were openwork, light, like precious crowns.
Artistic processing of the vine and wood. From the vine and wood, they produce decorative furniture, spicery, spoons with carved handles, household utensils and utensils. Attracted attention wooden chests with carving and colorful paintings. They are usually painted with oil paints two vases with lush bright bouquets of flowers, which on the front side framed the lock hole. The cap is painted with red roses. Complex “architectural structures were beds on carved legs-columns, with filenks of backs, also covered with paintings. The painting was floral, decorative, large, somewhat widespread cassette smear. For different needs, traditional wooden flasks were made in the traditional national form – “flat”, large and small sizes. From the front and back they were covered with a geometric shallow carving.
The greatest flowering reached wood carving in household products in the 1940-1950s. At that time, brilliant masters V. Novik and I. Tsekhanovich worked in Moldova. In their works prevailing plastic form, and the thread occupied the subordinate position.
The wizard often left some part of the surface not filled with thread, smooth.
Unfortunately, from the manufacture of practical wooden dishes in the late 1950s-1960s, the masters switched to the production of all sorts of insignificant crafts. Only Master M. Cheban in the 1970’s was true of the tradition of creating large objects of wood with a strict thread of geometric and plant-like character.
From the wood, dishes and home-made utensils were made mainly in those areas where there were more forests, but ceramics were practiced everywhere.
Ceramics is one of the oldest artistic crafts of Moldavia. Already five thousand years ago in the Prutsk-Dnistrovskyi interfluve a triumphantly reached the Trilopol culture. Ceramic vessels found in archeological excavations are also surprising today with the high quality of burnt shards, practical, easy to use shapes, and a beautiful large curl of the pattern. Known from those times forms of dishes, pots, vases throughout the course of the further development of Moldovan ceramics existed almost unchanged. At the turn of the 2nd and 1 st millennia BC The so-called Thracian culture blossomed into the foundation for the development of modern ceramics.
In the VI-VIII centuries of our time, the lands of modern Moldavia were inhabited by Slavs. Already from the Xth century, pottery has become the main kind of activity, like agriculture for farmland and livestock breeding for cattle breeders. The masters complicate the technology of making products, and there is a greater variety of shapes and decor. From those times there were objects, in the shingles of which golden glitter shines, added to the clay mass of mica. New types of ceramics – gray and red – with rich designs angob and stamp are distributed in
X-XIV centuries with the appearance on the territory of Moldova of the Balkan-Danube culture.
Modern Moldovan pottery has its ancient traditions of Thracian, Daco-Roman, Slavic and the end of the Balkan-Danube cultures, the Moldavian artistic tradition itself. And to this day, fishing exists in the types of red, gray and black ceramics. In Chinishuets, as in Kobolchin, on the site of ancient Slavic settlements, they prefer to make black ceramics. The shapes of the vessels of black ceramics have a special monumentality, which is emphasized by their severe dark color, casting silver, as it were, from the curtain’s surface. Such vessels are large in size, they are designed for carrying and storing water. Their surface is decorated with stamped ornaments, and sometimes on a burnt velvety black surface the vessel is covered with a simple vulgar linear ornament, which lies in shape, shading its roundness and soft bends.
Residents of Yurchenko and Zygandas prefer red and white ceramics. The Daco-Roman tradition is traced in the vessels of red and white clay, in products with a wide mouth, watering and developed decorative paintings. For this ceramic is characterized by green, yellow and brown glazes. Under the glaze painting is often used brown and reddish angob.
In fact, the Moldavian artistic tradition is observed in ceramics, which has a characteristic painting of small drawings made by angobs.
Creativity of the outstanding Moldovan master S. Chokolov contributed greatly to the appearance of new features in the Moldovan fishery. S. Chokolov is developing a line of molding ceramics, often abandoning the potter’s circle, creating his works in free plastic, using the expressiveness of the most elastic clay and the non-flowering range of watercolor paints. Decorativeness and saturation with the artistic ideas of S. Chokolov’s works are amazing. It can be said that he went further than traditional forms of ceramics of Moldavia, strengthening in his works the features of folk tales. The creativity of the professional artist S. Chokolov is inseparable from the foundations of the national Moldavian fishery in its essence and the rich use of folk traditions. The legacy of folk pottery is at the core of the creative work of another masters of Moldovan ceramics, a prominent professional E. The Greek, whose status as a professional artist does not prevent him from creating the best traditions of the national national pottery industry. The water jug made by them in recent years, the “bourgeois”, a vase in the traditions of black smoky Slavonic ceramics, testifies to the fact that the artist is extremely interested and carefully developing one of the strata of the richest traditions of folk art: in traditional manufacturing technology, a thorough understanding of the specifics of the plastic solution, application of vintage decoration of veneered ornament on a black matte surface.
Moldavian ceramics in the work of folk masters develops in a rich variety of forms and decorative decoration. The most widespread today are those works in which a cheerful pattern of dark green spots, white dots and dots is performed in a free, picturesque cartier manner and beautifully lies on the yellow-golden field of the surface of the clay vessel.
Pile ceramics, black smoke, red and white with watering and pattern angobs – has received wide development in contemporary decorative arts.
Suit. Various types of folk art were united in the ensemble of the Moldavian costume. Weaving, embroidery, ornaments of headgear and footwear, various kinds of beads, necklaces made the costume a work of national art.
In Moldova, the differences between urban and rural costumes were significant. The countryside has been characterized by great stability for centuries. The urban costume, especially the higher classes, economic, constantly experienced a volatile fashion influence, and this mode was heavily dependent on political situations. In the sixteenth century, the Moldovan Suit of the Upper Teachings obediently followed the Polish, from the XVII to the XIXth Century the Moldavian city clothes were under the strong influence of the Turkish tradition. Until the 19th century, Turkish kaftan was used in Moldavian urban clothing, as well as women’s camisole and woolen capes-Turkish-made cloaks. But the bulk of the rural population remained faithful to popular culture.
The traditional type of shirt – “kamesh moldoveniyashek” is characterized by numerous assemblies formed when gripping the gate with a lanyard. We see such shirts also on Thracian women of the reliefs of the Trajan column in Rome.
Embroidery of Moldovan women’s shirts, as a rule, is one or two colors. Even when the embroidery is colorful, festive, abundant, it is still monochrome, but enriched with nets and potholes.
Beautiful shirts of women in the Brichen district. They wear a few shorter sleeves that fall into lush festons. The sleeves are decorated with lace, and a little above the lace band is embroidered. On the shoulder inserts of the shirt, a smaller embroidery and all in one color – green leaves, and on the chest – the center of the entire composition of embroidery and color and rhythmic – large red roses and green branches with leaves. Moldovan embroidery appears before us in such a thoughtful and in color and in rhythmic fashion.
From the second half of the nineteenth century embroidery of women’s shirts is becoming more complicated – “alticea-rurour”. Shoulder embroidery – Altyce goes down on the sleeve and is built in a more complicated composition. Preserving the rigor of color relationships, in just two colors, such embroidery is rich in décor, its abundance and brightness looks exceptionally elegant.
Moldavian women’s costume is a decorative ensemble of closely interconnected components testifying to the high taste of folk craftsmen. The larger figure was on woven skirts, smaller – a filigree pattern of shirts, a slightly tied embroidered headdress – Naframe. Sometimes, the vertical stripes of embroidery were made on the back, this gave a great shape to the figure.
The most ancient Moldavian embroidery is geometric ornaments. And as at the end of the nineteenth century, vegetative patterns began to spread to the north of Moldova, in the south, in Chimišlyiysk, Cahul, Vulkanesti districts, geometric domains continue to this day.
The Moldavian costume beautifully complements the woven patterned shoulder bones, which were more decorative, fun colorful colors than the costume itself.
With the introduction of chemical dyes in the carpet, the contrast of the color of the field and pattern becomes the main characteristic feature of the Moldavian carpet. By the beginning of the twentieth century, the carpet “razboy” is widespread, in the center of the composition of which are unimaginably bright, voluminous thanks to the taking of images of the tufts of almost naturalistic roses. Sometimes they are connected in bouquets. On a dark carpet background, large roses burn like a flame. In the kayak, in addition to the colorful center, a bright garland of roses is depicted.
Moldavian handicrafts enterprises are concentrated mainly in Straseni and Nisporen districts. Here you will find a classic Moldavian carpet of harmonious low-key gamut. Enterprises produce a lot of small rugs – “nicer”, only two colors, strict geometric ornaments.
The works of art in Moldova in a beautiful ensemble coexist in the main room of the Moldavans’ dwelling – the “Casa Mara”. Usually this is a non-living, unheated room for reception of guests, in which there were the most beautiful things: painted wooden chests with dowels for daughters, on chests – stacks of colorful blankets and colorful carpets, on the benches laid woven woolen tracks – “laicher”, walls decorated with palaces, in carved cabinets and on shelves – pottery, which brings its festive note to bright, merry, green and golden paintings. Embroidered towels hang on the walls. Walls and stove – “buyer” of women painted with flower compositions.
“Kasa Mara” in the house of the Moldavian inhabitant and today is an authentic home museum, which speaks of talents and great taste of a person living in a house.