Russian artistic porcelain
THE FIRST THIRD OF THE XX CENTURY
The Rybinsk State Historical, Architectural and Art Museum-Reserve has a significant collection of ceramics and porcelain, numbering more than seven thousand items. The collection presents the products of many Western European manufactories, Far Eastern ceramics and porcelain, Russian porcelain and faience of the XVIII-XIX centuries, porcelain of the XX century, historical and ethnographic ceramics. Each of these sections has features and is interesting in its own way.
In 1930-1980-s museum funds were constantly replenished with samples of products of the Pervomaisky Porcelain Factory (hereinafter – PFZ). In 2001, the exhibits of the assortment cabinet and the museum of this enterprise became part of the Rybinsk collection, which put it in line with other state museums that joined their collections with unique factory collections of decorative and applied art.
In the Rybinsk Museum for several decades there was a permanent exposition of porcelain. Originally, ceramics and porcelain items were presented in a complex in the exposition of fine art, as well as in the section of local industry. In 1972, in one of the halls of the museum’s art gallery, a separate exposition of porcelain, built by EVTimontaev, was opened, and in 1982 it was updated by the curator A.G. Ushakova, who in the 1980s did a great job of inventorying the collection. In 1993, the exposition “Russian porcelain and glass of the XVIII-XIX centuries” was recreated in the new building of the museum by the efforts of the employees of NG. Smirnova and S.N. Ovsyannikova. However, publications, articles and catalogs on museum collections of Russian ceramics, faience and porcelain have long been absent. The exception was the catalog of 1960 on the collection of folk art, where samples of folk ceramics were presented. In 1965, an exhibition of PFZ products from the collections of Yaroslavl museums was held, accompanied by the issuance of a catalog.
In the 1990s, in the museum, a large research and attribute work with collections of foreign decorative and applied art was conducted by a senior research fellow and art historian E.A. Cieszynska. She prepared several expositions and guidebooks for them, published a number of popular scientific works, articles in various collections and scientific catalogs of collections of Dutch faience, porcelain and ceramics from China and Japan, as well as foreign ceramics from the Hermitage collection that are now stored in the Rybinsk Museum-Reserve . In 2001 EA Tseshinskaya was engaged in the exhibition of the permanent exhibition “Russian ceramics, porcelain and glass of the XVIII-XX centuries” in the museum’s art gallery. In the course of the work, the attribution of a number of works was specified, as well as a booklet and guide to the exhibition, unfortunately issued in a limited edition.
In the 2000s, individual items of the museum collection were considered in reports on regional ethnographic studies. With the collection of Russian porcelain of the XVIII-XIX centuries, the Rybinsk Museum was acquainted with participants of international scientific and practical conferences “Vinogradov Readings in St. Petersburg. Porcelain: Enterprises. Collections. Experts “in 2008 and 2009.
The album is timed to coincide with the jubilee events of 2010, dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the Rybinsk Museum-Reserve. We hope that the publication of this book, which popularizes a significant part of the museum collection, will not only help to increase the public interest in the museum as a whole, but will also become an important event in its history.
Russian artistic porcelain entered the world culture on a par with literature, music and painting. Its history covers more than two and a half centuries. Active attempts to establish own production of porcelain in Russia have been made since the beginning of the XVIII century. The first domestic porcelain factory in St. Petersburg, later the Imperial Porcelain Factory (hereinafter – IFZ), was established by order of Empress Elizabeth Petrovna in 1744. The birth of Russian porcelain, his first achievements are connected with the name of D.I. Vinogradov, a talented chemist who wrote the first monograph on porcelain technology.
The collection of Russian porcelain of the late XVIII – first third of the XIX century of the Rybinsk Museum is relatively small. Art products IFZ time of Catherine II is represented by separate samples of tableware 1770-1790-ies, manufactured but ordered by the former court office. A traditional type of decor for this time was flower painting: in the center is a large bouquet with a lush rose or tulip; small flowers and buds, scattered on the surface of the sides of dishes and plates, which were often with an embossed, “basket” weave; lids terin decorated with stucco decor in the form of fruit. At the end XVIII century one of the important elements of the painting of Russian porcelain was a monogram, enclosed in a medallion. Among IFZ products, such items are of particular interest, since they are associated with the fate of specific well-known personalities.
Russian artistic porcelain in the collection of the Rybinsk Museum
In the products of the reign of Emperor Paul, at the turn of the XVIII-XIX centuries, there have been changes in the decorative design of dishes: the so-called “cotton” décor of flowers spread evenly scattered throughout the surface; larger flower bouquets painters carried to the sides, freeing the clean field of the of white porcelain.
Over the next few reigns, the IFZ produced porcelain with military themes: numerous items depicting the “uniforms” of the Russian army, with portraits of the heroes of recent battles. The offensive against the events of the Patriotic War of 1812 was the frequent ornamentation of porcelain with military attributes that were included in the ornament.