Russian tupped doll
In the middle of the 20th century, in almost every family in the village and city, children played rag dolls.
And only with 1% 0-ies, when industrial enterprises began to produce millions of plastic toys, the tradition of making a home doll almost died out. However, it did not completely disappear, it was deeply deposited in the people’s memory.
A doll is a sign of a person, his play image is a symbol. In this role, it focuses on the time, the history of culture, the history of the country and the people, reflecting their movement and development. To that blessed source of spirituality, those who study the national culture, who seek to bring to the descendants of its precious grains, turn.
A doll is a way of knowing life and for those who create it, and for those who communicate with it. A doll is not an illusion, but a material, a tangible thing, sometimes a work of art. Together with the man she mastered many materials and different technologies, from ancient to newest.
Clay and wooden figures became a national souvenir, dolls from gypsaus of wax, metal – the property of museums and collectors. Papellé-mâché and porcelain in the dolls were covered with celluloid, gutta-percha, rubber and tar; to replace them came dolls of hard plastic. In turn, polyethylene was replaced by soft plastic and vinyl …
However, in this chain of technologies, the traditional rag doll has not become obsolete. In today’s Russia, it is experiencing a genuine revival. The handmade patchwork figure now performs a new communicative function. It has become a living means of communication and familiarizing with the people’s cultural experience. It has much in common with contemporaries – adults and children.
A traditional rag doll carries the memory of culture and makes it much brighter, wider and deeper than any other toy. The conditional humanoid figure once performed a magical role, served as an amulet. She participated in rituals and festivals, in ritual events of the circle of life on earth, celebrating birth, wedding, departure to ancestors. The echoes of the ancient meanings of the doll that survived to this day are heard and interpreted on a folklore basis in various forms.
A rag doll is a toy with valuable educational qualities that are recognized and cultivated in ethnopedagogy, in practical work with children. This is a great sample for training in needlework, artwork and creativity, arts and crafts and textile design. The national rag doll gives today glittering lessons of technology and technology, shaping and artistic design of the fabric. This universal toy has a spiritual filling – here lies the appeal of the patchwork doll.
The man-made toy served as ancestral ethnic code for our ancestors, which indicated the direction of the life path. Considering the old dolls, we will notice how the chain of hidden symbols, characteristic of the peasant’s mythological consciousness, appears in them for the Russian folk culture. Therefore, in the manufacture of traditional rag dolls there were no accidents – in all it was perceived a certain meaning. As a rule, rag dolls were the simplest depiction of a female figure: a piece of cloth rolled into a rolling pin, carefully covered with a white linen rag, face, chests of flat rag balls, a braid and ordinary peasant dress from a rag.
Most often puppet costumes were made from scraps of purchased fabrics – chintz and satin, kumach and kolenkora. They, unlike homespun, until the beginning of the XX century remained expensive for the village and were intended for festive clothing. The remaining trimmings were stored in sacks, they were kept on toys. And when the puppets were made, the scraps were carefully selected. Particularly appreciated red rags, they went to the most beautiful dolls. Red color has long served as an amulet, a symbol of life and the productive power of nature. Rag dolls, sewn from a new rag, specially made as a gift to christenings, to the day of the angel, to the holiday, showing kindred love and care. In the old days for the Feast of the Presentation of the Virgin in the Temple, when the winter festivities began on the sledge, small children and birthday girls were sent as a gift “trump” sleds with dolls. This duty lay on mother-in-law and godmothers. Notice that “homemade” dolls were given to relatives and friends, holding together the tribal bonds: this is also one of the evidence of their sacred significance. In the family, for their children, dolls “twirled” usually from old rags. And not even by poverty, but by the ritual of blood intimacy. It was believed that the cloth kept the ancestral force and, incarnating in the doll, passed it on to the child, becoming a guardian. For the same reason, the newborns were wrapped in their parents’ underwear, wrapped in diapers made of clothes. For dolls most often used the hem of women’s shirts and aprons. It was these parts of the costume, coming in contact with the earth and thus absorbing its power, had the greatest sacral value. It is noteworthy that the scraps for the dolls were always torn by the straight thread, and not cut with scissors. It was believed that such a toy prophesied to her small mistress integrity without flaws and damage. Often puppet clothing accurately conveyed the characteristics of local costumes. On a famous doll from Orel province – a linen shirt with straight polikami, with a ramshackle in the front, with rectangular rags of a cupcake sewn on the shoulders. The gates, like those of real shirts, are assembled on a narrow lining and decorated with a green silk ribbon. The upper sleeves and cuffs are trimmed with a strip of red-eye weaving. On the doll is a characteristic Orel wool from homespun wool with a proverb from black and blue satin, trimmed along the hem with a red woolen braided belt. Over the ponies there is an apron with a frill of bright colorful calico with a large-patterned pattern. On the head of the doll flaunts a dress in the form of a crown, embroidered with braid, beads, sequins, ribbons.