State Reserve-Museum-Estate of Turgenev
State Reserve-Museum-Estate of Turgenev. A turn to the State reserve-museum IS Turgenev Spasskoye-Lutovinovo from the Moscow-Simferopol highway – not far from the 303-kilometer. The nearest railway stop is Bastevo station. From there, especially from the site where the writer’s bust is installed, a direct road to the park is clearly visible.
The author of the Notes of the Hunter, a “poetic accusatory speech against serfdom,” now appears to be one of those heroes of great Russian literature who, in the name of serving the oppressed people, were supposed to “leave urban life, take a hunting rifle and beat land and on the fly game of serfdom. ” The starting point of his literary activity Turgenev called the Annibal oath to fight and never reconcile with serfdom. This direction of his creative path was determined primarily by the influence of the surrounding writer from childhood “very ugly” environment.
If from Bastoy go to Spassky on foot, you can personally see a real place, which still retains its former name, widely known from the story “Biryuk” from the “Notes of the Hunter”. This is Kobyliy Top – a ravine covered with forest. It was there that the drama set by Turgenev in the basis of the images of the forester and chopper created by him was played out. Equally closely related to reality and all this great, life-affirming, deeply patriotic book about Russia and the Russians is a cycle of eternally young and eternally exemplary stories and essays with their undying types.
Even now everyone who enters the park passes by the restored “almshouse”, which was built by the writer for the elderly, or near the lodge where, under Turgenev, there was an open school for peasant children, it seems that Ivan Sergeevich will now meet, huge, broad-shouldered, with a ruddy face of a purely Russian warehouse, framed by snow-white hair, like a fairy-tale hero, great, handsome, mighty – he will look with kind, intelligent eyes, smile and say how he wrote to one of his corre- sponding pondentov: “My house is modest and small – this is the only remnant of a much more extensive buildings that were burned” (in 1839 – VG.).
After the death of Turgenev, his successor OV Galakhova, the wife of the Oryol vice-governor, took the library and the whole situation of the house from Spassky. In 1918, these things were nationalized and became the basis of the literary and memorial museum in Orel, the hometown of Turgenev. Now they are returned to their former place in Spasskoe-Lutovinovo, where in September 1976 a restored memorial house museum was opened for visitors.
On the wall in the brick gallery, which has now become the lobby for visitors, the main works on which Turgenev worked in different years in Spassky are named, and the surrounding places of his wanderings with a gun and a dog are well-known to readers from the writings and letters of the great realist artist. Unintentionally, simple as nature itself, and at the same time so inspired, so full of feelings and thoughts, words from the poem in the prose “Village” come involuntarily: “The last day of June of the month; for a thousand miles around Russia – the native land. ”
The epic force of this Turgenev laconic lyric line gives an opportunity to better understand why many of his contemporaries compared him to a mythological hero who grew stronger every time his feet touched the ground. “You,” one of them told him, “Antey, the son of his native land.” And in fact, the fate of the classic of Russian and world literature – a patriot and citizen, an educator, a humanist artist – is inseparable from reality, which served as the basis for his inspiration and creativity. The mergeness of Turgenev’s extraordinary and complex personality with nature, with the environment and surroundings in which he grew up, lived, worked hard, was deeply defined by Leo Tolstoy, who wrote in his diary on May 31, 1856 after visiting Spassky: “His house showed me his roots and explained a lot. ” The word “house” is used here not only in a direct but also in a broader sense, as can be seen from Tolstoy’s letter to Nekrasov, who visited Turgenev’s estate two years earlier: “It must be shown in the village …”.
Here, “in the heart of the steppes, in the wilderness,” as Turgenev called his native district, he was used to feeling at home, in his element, from his childhood. From Moscow and St. Petersburg, from Berlin, Paris, London, Rome, he was constantly drawn to “there, there, into the open fields,” “into the village, into the dark garden.” Here, for the first time, he heard from the country road “a sad song of a peasant, unevenly interrupted by the push of a cart.” It was in Spassky, where Turgenev spent most of his childhood, he comprehended the common folk word, deeply and greedily inhaling the “air of native places”. Here, the Russian truthful hot soul opened to him – in the precise phrases of speech, in heartfelt sayings and wise proverbs that burst from the very heart, in fairy tales, epics, songs, about which he later said: “There was a time that I was crazy descended from folk songs … that’s where the springs of true poetry are beating. ”
All this, obviously, gave him an excuse, as well as the special right to call his “backwoods”, his “old”, “beloved”, “native nest” one day the folkloric Pushkin’s word “Lukomorye”, that is, the living abode of muses, a poetic cradle. There was no exaggeration here, because most of his works were either conceived, or somehow inspired, or even written completely or partially in Spassky.
Inspection of the “parent ark”, as the house of Turgenev Y. P. Polonsky called, begins with the dining room. Here you can hear “the verb of times, metal ringing”: in the corner there are the “Brigadier” described in the story and the “huge English clock in the form of a tower with the inscription” Strike-silent “(” beat-silent “). They indicate, except for time, the number of the month. On the deep and lifelong interest of Turgenev, the friend of the great singer Pauline Viardot – to music resembles a piano. Other things that are in the dining room, confirm the words of the writer that it is “furniture shod, homemade.” On the wall opposite the dining table are the portraits of the nurse and wet nurse, adjacent to the images of Turgenev’s ancestors, whose individual features are discernible in his early novel Three Portraits, as well as in later works.
The central place in the small living room is occupied by a huge sofa, mentioned in the novel “On the Eve”: “Uvar Ivanovich was resting on the mezzanine on a wide and comfortable sofa, nicknamed” samoson. ”
The decor of the coal drawing room, which occupies a spacious corner room, has been preserved with great completeness and allows one to imagine Turgenev in his native element behind a lively conversation with AA Fet, DV Grigorovich, NA Nekrasov, L N. Tolstoy, Ya.P. Polonsky, actress MG Savina and other remarkable people. Paintings of the same kind survived in Spassky.
The icon survived. According to legend, it belonged to the ancestor of Turgenev from the time of Ivan the Terrible, that is, it was a historical family relic, like the church, and the “mausoleum” of II Lutovinov, the founder of the Spassky manor, the great-uncle of the writer on the maternal line.
In the same letter to Flaubert, Turgenev spoke admiringly of the Cabinet’s main accessories: “The writing desk is excellent – and the armchair with a double seat of reeds!” MG Savina recalled that when she first entered this office , Ivan Sergeyevich “so simply said:” Here at this table I wrote “Fathers and children.” Above the table hangs a portrait of VG Belinsky – an ideological mentor and friend of Turgenev. There is also a portrait of another friend of the writer – the great Russian actor MS Shchepkin, who visited the “rescue exile” in 1853.
Next to the office is a room called the mother of Turgenev’s “casino”. Here is a chess table, behind which Ivan Sergeyevich spent a lot of time with one of his guests. Immediately there is a large oval table of Karelian birch, nicknamed “geridon” and a memorable writer from childhood; At this table he worked with his brother to prepare lessons.
So we again go out into the park to look at it now through the eyes of the writer. Such an opportunity is given to us by his writings and letters resembling in aggregate the mighty trunk and branched oak crown that symbolizes the deep and inextricable links of the complex root system of Turgenev’s creativity with Russian life and native land. At the beginning of the story “Faust”, as well as in the first part of the novel “Nov” contains a detailed and reliable description of the “great-grandfather black earth garden”, located along the long slope of a gentle hill.
The pinched note of farewell not only does not drown, but, perhaps, even strengthens our feeling of reverent admiration for the all-encompassing power of Turgenev’s talent, for the eternal and invincible, like life itself, with words that broke from the depths of his soul, when in the summer of 1855 he worked in one from the arbor Spassky over the novel “Rudin”: “Russia can do without each of us, but none of us can not do without it.”
From this arbor leads a winding path to the house and a straight short road to the oak tree. And around, as Turgenev wrote to Flaubert, who dreamed of visiting Spassky, to see here “the span of the Russian land” – “two hundred dessiatines of rustling rye!” Involuntarily dying and now “with some feeling of solemnity, infinity …”.