State Russian Museum
State Russian Museum. Folk art.
Since the first years of the department’s existence, scientific expeditions to various regions and regions of Russia have become the main means of replenishment of the meeting, from where, during 70 years of the department’s activity, many valuable exhibits were received.
In 1950, for the first time in the history of Russia, the Russian Museum presented folk art in a permanent exhibition on a par with masterpieces of painting, sculpture and graphics. At that time, it was an unprecedented innovation and not everyone understood. Innovation was not only in the very fact of recognition of this kind of creativity as a natural part of the national artistic culture. For the first time an attempt was made to show the historical development of folk art. In eight halls of the first floor of the right wing of the Flagel of Russia, about a thousand exhibits of different kinds of folk art from the 17th century to the 1950s were presented.
The active replenishment of collections, the commissioning of new premises, the plan for the general re-exposure of all the halls of the Russian Museum, brought to life a new exposition of folk art in the 12 reconstructed and specially designated 12 halls of the left wing of the Rossi. Opened on October 13, 1969, this exposition existed until 1981. She demonstrated a significant amount of works in their chronological order.
Folk art was an integral part of the exposition complex dedicated to Russian decorative and applied art. This complex opened an exposition of ancient Russian applied art of the X-XVII centuries, as if diverging into two separate sections: the folk art of the 17th and 20th centuries and the art industry of the 18th and 20th centuries. Thanks to the extensive and diverse collections of the museum, Russian applied art was represented in all its diversity and richness.
The works are housed in the latest modern equipment, made by special order from the German company Rothstein.
The exposition begins with the objects of the 17th century, the time by which the oldest preserved works of folk art are dated.
Hall I Folk Art XVII – the beginning of the XVIII century.
Tight suspension spirals for a chandelier (church chandelier) and cabbage cuttings, a thin lace of the top of the gonfalon, cut-through stripes with which wooden wooden chests are restrained and the unique headrest of the master of Ivan Chupyat in 1750 reveal different facets of the skill of village smiths.
They reflect all the richness of the ornament – from the simplest geometric figures to complex processing by folk masters of patterns of foreign silks and velvet. Ornament densely fills the entire plane of the canvas, each motif is fuzzy with small details.
Hall II Folk art. XVIII century
In the rich and varied ornament of the products – strict rows of concentric circles, flowers and grasses, hunting scenes among shells and wickers, symbols and emblems from the famous book “Symbols and Emblems”, repeatedly published and served as a source of themes for many generations of artists and artists; Plots borrowed from the Bible, engravings and prints. And all this was combined in the décor of Kholmogory products, delivering not only aesthetic pleasure, but also the opportunity to examine the details for a long time and decipher their allegorical meaning.
According to them, the pattern is, as it were, “spread”, and each figure is embroidered with tiny seams-patterns that came into folk embroidery from Old Russian gold embroidery. In a similar way, a unique table-top (tablecloth) is embroidered, referring to an earlier time – the end of the 17th century. In its ornament among the grasses and flowers were joined two-headed eagles, Syrian birds, crowns, birds and fish – symbolic images, also inherited from Old Russian art.
At the end of the XVIII century in the city of Orel was embroidered a unique towel, at the ends of which reproduced the scene of the fall of Adam and Eve. With all sincerity and spontaneity of the national master the biblical story is treated as a fairy-tale action. The figures of Adam and Eve, the Sun, the Month and the stars, the deer, the unicorn and the pelican are placed on the sides of the tree braided with branches. All images are refined with the corresponding embroidered inscriptions. The composition is called “The Exile of Hell,” and above it is reported that this “towel of the city of Orel, Peter Nemytov, was the daughter of Evo Praskov Petrovna.”
In the north, embroidered dresses also complemented the river pearl earrings in the form of butterflies, bunches of berries or miniature pots with flowers. Headwear and earrings shown in the hall are distinguished by the skill and artistic taste of their authors.
Hall III Folk Art XVIII – the beginning of the XIX century.
In the first third of the XIX century in the territory of the former Kaluga province there was a local type of stove tiles with images of figured medallions of bouquets and baskets of flowers, lemons, written in a characteristic lilac-yellow-green color scheme on a white background.
Among the products of “tile ceramics” are a rounded bratina and a large massive kumgan. Both forms are inherited from the dishes of Ancient Rus, but the painting with bright colored enamels corresponds to its time.
Printed fabrics of the XVIII century along with the traditional linen cloth were performed on calico-cotton cloth. In the prevailing floral ornament, the flowers of carnation, roses are characteristic. Enriched the color palette, in which a prominent place was taken by the people’s favorite red color of different shades.
The sculptors from Veliky Ustyug of the Vologda province were noted for their high craftsmanship. Huge, solemnly marching angels with raised wings were performed in the flattened relief traditional for Ancient Rus. The expressive figure of Evangelist Luke is distinguished by the monumentality and dynamism of the later Baroque era.
Sculptures from Velsk, Bezhetsk, districts of the Volga region – works of carvers of different talent and skill. But each of them gives its own interpretation of the evangelical images of the Sabaoth, Christ, the Mother of God, the apostles, combining the accepted iconography with the signs of real life, including the local type of person.
The art of carving and painting on wood is represented by traditional household objects that served many generations of people.
In the Tver and Kostroma provinces, the rounded shape of the bucket is as if flattened and decorated with horse heads or looped handles resembling the heads of birds. The northern rollers and rubbles are in the form of an elongated board, the entire surface of which is decorated with a small geometric ornament. The valleys of the Volga region resemble the shape of the oar.
The early period of the art of copper casting is represented by copper inkwells of the XVII-XVIII centuries and such original everyday thing of the 18th century as kopoushki. The latter removed the sulfur from the ears, and the ink scribes were worn by the scribes at their waists. In their decoration there are characteristic for this time fantastic animals and birds, executed in relief with the addition of engraving and colored enamels.
Miniature copper locks of the XVIII century from the village of Pavlovo on the Oka, combs and plaques of the 18th century horse-races are an example of an amazing unity of everyday expediency of things and artistry of their forms and decor. Using casting, chasing and engraving, the masters turned ordinary objects into works of art. Forms of locks transmit typical images of fairy-tale Sirins, lions, unicorns.
In the creation of Rostov enamel Rykunin pushed away from engravings and paintings of contemporary artists of the academic direction, but interpreted them, subjecting them to the laws of decorative art. The work is distinguished by the skill of drawing, laconic construction of the composition, the brightness of the precisely found colors and the variety of their nuances, which, on the whole, gives the depicted an emotional sound.
With all the laconism and generalization of expressive means, each of the three presented in the hall ohpupne has its own character. Particularly impressive is the monumentality and grace of the proudly planted head horse of 1 853 from the village of Kokui in the Shenkur county of the Arkhangelsk province.
Probably, the detail of the decor of the Volga barka was a unique 18th-century board with relief painted images of a mermaid and a lion. The picture of the casing window of the light-box and the fragile bird-shutters of this house are expressive. Long frieze boards and pilasters from the unique carved complex of the house of Mokhov in 1866 from the village of Nikola Pogost, trim and details of the carvings of other huts are marked by a variety of ornamental motifs and plots.
About peasant furniture with its simplicity and constructiveness gives an insight into the painted cupboard of 1892 from the village of Petryakovskaya of the Shenkur county of Arkhangelsk province. Among the floral ornament are the date and incomplete autograph of the master, and on the side wall a lion with a bared mouth is a traditional guard of the house.
Hall VII Folk Art XIX – the beginning of the 20th century
By the nineteenth century, pottery in Russia existed in the form of numerous foci in various regions serving the domestic needs of the local population.
In the ring aperture of one of the kvass, an unknown author placed the figure of the master behind the potter’s wheel, and on the other hand finished products are dried on the bench. The unique art of the skopin ceramics is successfully developing today, as evidenced by the works of contemporary masters and artists of the fishery.
Weaving is two-sided, with a stepped pattern of patterns. If the first three types of textile were common everywhere, then mortgages existed in a number of districts of the Vladimir, Tver, Tambov and Ryazan provinces. In Sapozhkovskiy uyezd of Ryazan gubernia, shushpans were adorned with a wide band of embedded weaving – the top women’s clothing.
All kinds of decorating fabrics were combined in a folk costume, especially a women’s festive or wedding dress. Dedicated in the center of the hall four suits give an idea of the characteristics of the cut, the composition of objects, the ways of decorating them, characteristic for different localities. Strict in silhouette and color, a girlish costume from the Pinega Uyezd of the Arkhangelsk Province, bright multidisciplinary kits from the Kasimovsky uyezd of the Ryazan and Korotoyak Counties of the Voronezh province and a gold-embroidered gold-embroidered suit from the Nizhny Novgorod province do not exhaust the whole variety of folk costumes, but represent it the best specimens.
Hall VIII Folk Art XIX – the beginning of the XX century.
In the hall are collected works of folk toys, embroidery and lacework XIX – early XX century.
A folk toy is a kind of folk art. It surprisingly combines the polar beginning – antiquity and modernity, unrestrained fantasy and signs of real life, the limited themes and plots and the variety of options for their incarnations.
Images are distinguished by generalized plastic without unnecessary details, squat proportions, soft glaze or painting. Many of the figures are whistles.
In the city of Skopin, Ryazan province, along with the famous ceramics, they made a toy – whistles in the form of riders, amusing bears, ducks, as well as children’s dishes, which repeated miniature forms of local pottery.
Wooden horse-wheelers and wheelchairs-carriages were made in the XIX century by peasants of the Kirillov district of Novgorod province. The elongated, lean body of a horse or a fantastic creature that conveys a carriage in a single volume and a pair of horses harnessed to it is decorated with a painting on a bright orange background. Once it was a symbol of fire and sun, and then it was preserved in the painting of toys as an artistic device. Orange color is inherent in toys from the village of Pestyaki Gorokhovetsky district of the Vladimir province. But the images of this toy are more terrestrial, they have a lot of features, observed in real life – from the reproduction of a local costume from dolls to an arc of a stick, harnesses in carriages.
Simplicity of production and expressive laconism of images differ dolls “strigushki.” From a half-folded small bundle of golden straw, part of the stems are bent into the hands of a “pretzel” and fastened at the waist with an apron. A headscarf, an epitaph or a horned goose with its forms transform an abstract image-symbol, connected with the origin of ancient agrarian holidays, into a typical peasant doll. There are signs of real life in such fairy-tale characters as Vyatka “mosquitoes” made of cones, moss, bark and pakli. These inhabitants of dense Vyatka forests are unique, they are preserved in single copies.
Creativity Mezrinoy played a big role in the future of the Dymkovo toy and familiarizing with the work of other masters.
The influence of porcelain and urban culture is palpable in the unique collection of figures from the Big Gonchary settlement in Tula. Elegant in silhouette, in a gentle range of paintings, they convey the expressive look of elegant lady-townspeople, nurses with children, monks. A small number of preserved works suggest that in these toys the work of a separate workshop or master, who worked in the 1880s.
The emergence of the toy business in Sergiev Posad near Moscow is confirmed by documents of the XVII century. But the original works date back to the XIX century. Cut in Sergiev Posad and “dummies” – forms for toys made from papier-mache, which served many generations of masters.
A huge fairy cock from the Rostov district of the Yaroslavl province, medieval leopards – each with a bared mouth and raised paw – from the Olonets and Kaluga provinces, made in traditional local sewing techniques, are vivid examples of the artistic richness of folk embroidery. It is supplemented by gold embroidery.
Yelets lace was made of fine threads. His omens were the refinement of the patterns, the lightness and the airiness of the objects to be decorated.
The Vologda lace is distinguished by its greater density of texture, its ornaments are executed by the continuous line of the linen cloth – “Vilyushka”. In the Kadnikovo district of the Vologda province, lace was used to decorate the lower skirts, where, in contrast, the shades of colored patterned weaving shaded. In the Mikhailovsky district of the Ryazan province, laces with characteristic patterns of massive “bells” were sewn to the ends of the towels and the hem of the women’s shirts.
Room IX Folk Art of the XIX-XX century
In the XX century the varnish miniature of Fedoskina passed a big and difficult path with periods of ups and downs. The works presented in the hall reflect the flourishing of the Fedoskino miniature in the 1960s and the 990s. Here, and the work of local “classics” – MS Chizhov (1923-1986), II Strakhov (1918-1 979), MG Pashinin (1921-1998), SP Rogatov ( born 1920), and masters of younger generations. In perfect possession of technique and local techniques of writing, including painting on mother-of-pearl and metallized backgrounds, miniaturists turn to a variety of subjects. Along with the traditional “troikas” and “tea parties”, they mastered modern genre, fairytale, historical and historical-revolutionary themes, an independent landscape, a portrait, a still-life, symbolic ornamental compositions. Among the masters are many representatives of local family dynasties, which continue today the creative life of the fishery.
Like all folk crafts, in the XX century Zhostovo painting passed its development path full of complex organizational, economic and artistic order. But thanks to the creative contribution of the leading talented masters of different generations, the unique art of decorative still life on a tray that has gained worldwide fame has developed. Despite the ideological pressure, the influence of easel forms of art and economic difficulties, the Zhostonites not only preserved the nature of craftsmanship, but also enriched it, confirming the main direction of searches in decorative floral still life, executed in a manner close to peasant folk paintings, then in the form of a panel that sometimes symbolic, associative content, but always bearing the feelings of joy of life, the beauty of nature. The unique author’s works by A. P. Gogin (1 893-1980), N. N. Goncharova (born 1,927), B. V. Grafova (born 1933), N. Antipov (born 1931) are presented in the hall. ), MP Savelyeva (1 930-1999), NN Mazhaeva (1 937-2000), EP Lapshina (1933-2006) and other recognized classics, representatives of family dynasties and their young followers. They demonstrate the high skill and rich creative potential of the artists of the famous fishery.
Among the founders of Palekh’s art (II Golikov, IV Markichev, AV Kotukhin, II Zubkov and others), the outstanding role belonged to I. I. Golikov (1 886-1937), whose work in many respects determined the characteristics of the local lacquer miniature. His works expressed modernity in the spirit of the revolutionary romance of the 1920s, a rebellious emotion of emotions.
In the formation of the lacquer miniature of Palekh, each of its founders and representatives of many generations of followers made their unique contribution. In addition to the miniature, where the letter itself corresponded to the small size of the objects to be decorated, turning them into jewels, the Paleshans engaged in book illustrations, made plays, performed wall paintings and varnish panels for public interiors, and created jewelry in cooperation with masters of artistic metalworking.
Among the works of masters of different generations represented in the hall – from the oldest (NP Klykov, IN Morozov, IA Fomichev) to their pupils and young followers. A large contribution to the local miniature in the 1960s and 1980s was made by NI Shishakov (1925-1998), LA Fomichev (born 1932), LA Demidova (born 1927), V.G. Starkova (born 1926) and many others. Today the young Mstera, in addition to lacquer miniatures, also writes icons, mastering the wealth of local artistic heritage.
The village of Kholui got its name from the wattle fence (“holuyev”), which residents set for fishing on the picturesque banks of the river Teza. Focusing on their icons and, to a certain extent, on the experience of Palekh, Kholui artists write various compositions for genre-household, fairy-tale and historical themes, placing them on a black background or in the landscape, looking for the originality of the local color, the correspondence of miniature painting to the form of the object. In the 1960s and 1980s, the middle-aged masters, VA Belov (born 1923), BI Kiselev (born 1928), N. N. Denisov (born 1929) and others brightly declared themselves. Today, together with them, become local classics, young people who have taken the baton of new art work. She seeks her ways in art, studies and revives iconography, continues local art traditions.
In the XX century, Rostov enamel experienced various times – from almost complete liquidation to revival in the 1960s. Few contemporary art works by Rostov artists (TS and BM Mikhailenko (born 1941), AV Tikhova (born 1,948), AA Haunova (born 1,930) and others) give an idea of the creative search for masters in the variety of forms of subjects, themes and subjects of painting, about the picturesque craftsmanship both in composite miniatures and in jewelry-ornamental ornaments.
Hall X Folk art XX century
The first experiments were connected with the search for new forms of products and the revival of the mastership of painting. This phase of Gzhel’s history is represented by small, utilitarian subjects.
Since then, Gzhel fishing has come a long way, becoming a world-famous production with its own unique style. Multi-objective services, decorative vases, individual items, combining a plastic solution with a household purpose, small decorative sculpture attract beauty and variety of forms and elegant paintings, executed with a juicy smear, then a graphic drawing. The strict style of Gzhel’s blue-and-white porcelain finds an individual interpretation in the author’s manners of each of the local artists. It manifests itself in a selective attitude to the forms and purpose of objects, the features of their plastics, the receptions and the nature of the painting,
even the manner of applying the paint. All this can be seen in the works of TS Dunashova (born 1921), LP Azarova (born 1919), 3. V. Okulova (1938-1997), A. N. Fedotova (born 1937), I. and V. Bidakov (born 1952) and other artists who made a significant contribution to the achievements of Gzhel art.
The Gzhel majolica is reviving. Her success today is evident in the work of Yu. I. Petlina (born 1955), whose works are characterized by modern images, good humor, the beauty of the painting, inheriting the best traditions of the ancient Gzhel majolica.
Unique author’s works of artists of different generations are presented, with all the differences of creative handwriting that preserve traditionally high skill of openwork and relief carving and color engraving. Some works were made specifically for the Russian Museum: “Spring in the Tundra”
A. Guryeva (1929-1990), Peter I – the founder of the Russian fleet “and” Space “ND Butorin (born 1934), the cup” Feat of Love. In Memory of the Wives of the Decembrists »GF Osipova (born 1945), stop” Russia “VM Balandin (born 1953). Each of these masterpieces is filled with a lot of content. And next to them – things chamber (boxes, needle beds) or monumental (“The Tabernacle” and “Chess” ND Butorin), equally attracting masterly skill and figurative significance.
A thin stroke and dense engraving, smooth polishing and a small carved or chiselled background pattern in each piece are used individually, turning it into a genuine jewel. The artistic orientation of the northern mob was largely determined by the work of the outstanding artist and engraver E. P. Shilnikovsky (1890-1980), who for many years headed the fishery, and then his pupils and followers EF Tropina (born 1,930). Their works became classics of local art of the XX century.
Hall XII Folk art XX century
The twentieth century became a flourishing time for the Khokhloma painting, bringing a variety of forms of objects traditionally made in a turning manner, and an abundance of ornaments, always organic in form with their smooth lines. Improvisational ease of drawing; traditional patterns of “grass” and “Kudrina”, enriched with new compositions; The fiery painting with exquisite combinations of cinnabar and black paint applied along the aluminum background, which through the layers of varnish gives Khokhloma gold, all this transforms modest wooden vessels into works of art. The presented works are executed in different decades and correspond to the requirements of their time. But both centers are characterized by ornamental wealth and diversity, a generous fantasy. And to this day Khokhloma painting is developed by generations and family dynasties of local turners and painters, among which there are many talents that serve as a reference point for young people. In Semenov – this is E. N. Dospalova (1 932-2001), N. P. Salnikova (born 1932), N. V. Morozova (born 1930), O. S. Bulganina (1927-1972); in Semin – SP Veselov (1903-1993), OP Lushina (born 1928), ON Veselova (born 1931), NA Gushchin (born 1961) and many others.
The unique panels of the hereditary master DI Kryukov (1897-1966) reflect the search for new ways in the 1930s, when the usual painting on the Don was unnecessary. Its revival began in the 1950s under the leadership of E. P. Shilnikovsky (1890-1980), who supervised the fishery along with the Northern Caucasus. By this time belong the works of A. 3. Ostroumova and L. P. Balagurovskaya, demonstrating new ornamental achievements in carving along the birch bark.
Today, the outstanding artists AE Markov (born 1930) and TG Vyazova (born 1955), whose unique works are represented in the hall, work in this field.
Hall XII Folk art XX century
The world-famous Dymkovo toy in the city of Kirov in the 20th century is represented by different generations of craftsmen: not only descendants of local family dynasties, but also came to this art from other regions of Russia. They successfully continue the local traditions of the famous craft, taking the experience of the elders directly from hand to hand and mastering all the secrets of craftsmanship. And to this day the work of AA Mezrina (1853-1938) and her contemporaries and followers EI Penkina (1 882-1948), EI Koss-Denshina (1901-1979), E 3. Koshkina (1914-1993) and others. A multifigure composition is created that allows you to arrange the figures differently and thus play with them. In the hall you can see the unique author’s works of famous modern masters: L.S. Falaleeva (born 1937), N. P. Trukhina (born 1935), E. A. Smirnova (1935-2004), R. E. Penkina ( born in 1951) and others.
In the toy of the 1930s, among the genre compositions, the topic of border protection that was relevant at the time appeared. An example of this is the “Red Army soldiers” VT Polinov (1879-1940), where the traditional method for Bolgorod residents to mount figurines on the slats was used, allowing them to be moved into the ranks – the so-called “divorce”. In the 1940s he worked as an outstanding hereditary carver IK Stulov (1901 -1979). His works convey the images of popular fairy tales and fables by the means of Bogorodsky art. And the composition “Blacksmiths” became for the fishery a kind of artistic symbol.
Funny entertaining Bogorodsky toys cause a smile with their ingenuity, fiction, kind humor.
Both techniques were perfectly mastered by the outstanding masterskaya embroiderer TM Dmitriev-Shulpin (1913-1999). Her works are distinguished by a rich imagination, allowing any subjects to be transformed into embroidered panels, and masterful execution of them.
One of the outstanding masters of this case is LI Plyusnina (born 1910) from the village of Deryabino, Krasnoborsk district, Arkhangelsk region.
So, after going through all 1 2 halls of the exposition of folk art, the attentive visitor looked through the pages of his history for almost four centuries. “Folk art is the soul of the people and its strength and pride,” wrote famous artist I. Ya. Bilibin at the beginning of the 20th century. The Russian Museum preserves and protects this heritage. The works presented in the halls help many people to discover its priceless treasures.