State Tretyakovskaya gallery
State Tretyakovskaya gallery
State Tretyakovskaya gallery. It seems that the intricate terema of the Russian fairy tale stand in the Zamoskvorechie building of the Tretyakov Gallery, the main -U facade of which was designed in 1901 -1902 according to the project of the artist V. Vasnetsov. The inscription at the entrance, made with an old script, reads: “The Moscow City Art Gallery named after Pavel Mikhailovich and Sergei Mikhailovich Tretyakov. It was founded by P.M. Tretyakov in 1856 and handed over to them as a gift to Moscow in conjunction with the bequest of the city collection of SM Tretyakov.
Now it is difficult to imagine that the national gallery of Russian painting, an art museum of world significance, began its existence by the efforts of one man, an enthusiast and amateur of fine arts, Pavel Tretyakov. To the gathering he was inspired by the impression of P. Fedotov’s paintings, the founder of critical realism in Russian genre painting. The canvases of the artist literally shocked Tretyakov with their simplicity and extraordinary expressiveness. They led him to the conviction that the work of art should contain a great idea, deeply and intelligibly worked out.
And in 1856 the first step was taken -Tretyakov bought the well-known at that time academician N. Shilder painting “Temptation”. Soon she added a painting by V. Khudyakov “A Skirmish with Finnish Smugglers”. These two works laid the foundation for the creation of the Tretyakov Picture Gallery State Tretyakovskaya gallery.
Replenishment of Tretyakov’s collection was greatly facilitated by the exhibitions of the Moscow Society of Art Lovers. In its charter it was written: “… to promote the spread and prosperity of the arts … the all-round development of the fine arts in Russia”, which fully corresponded to the position of Tretyakov. At the exhibitions of the Society he met the best Russian artists of the time. Being in close contact with them, Tretyakov bought not only exhibition works, but also those that only started in the workshops. Expanding the gathering from year to year, Tretyakov sacredly believed in the prospects of national art.
In one of his letters there are such words: “Many positively do not want to believe in the good future of Russian art, they assure that if sometimes an artist writes a not bad thing, it’s somehow accidental, and that he will then increase a number of mediocrities.” I have a different opinion, otherwise … I would not collect a collection of Russian paintings … “. Tretyakov’s reputation, as a serious connoisseur of art, grew in the midst of artists, whose fate contributed to the rapprochement with them. Married to his niece art patron S. Mamontov, Tretyakov often stayed with him in Abramtsevo, where lived and worked many outstanding.
Russian painters are members of the famous Abramtsevo art circle. In the estate near Moscow he met with I. Repin. Friendship with him began in 1871 in the days of the first traveling exhibition. Tretyakov enthusiastically supported the idea of such exhibitions, aimed at acquainting the inhabitants of Russian provinces with Russian art. And he himself, according to the famous artist N. Kasatkin, played “… an outstanding role, as the main investor who trusted the organization of the” Mobile “thing, the most precious, already paid in huge amounts, patiently waiting for their return to their beloved treasury, understanding the importance of this cultural business for Russia … “Continuous purchases of paintings led Tretyakov to the fact that his mansion could no longer accommodate all the works of the collection. And then he decided to make a large outbuilding with a facade on Lavrushinsky Lane (now the main building of the museum).
In 1874 the works were finished. After hanging pictures in the halls, Tretyakov announced the opening of the gallery for visitors. It was his old dream, and it came true! But Tretyakov did not stop there. In 1892, he handed over a collection of his paintings and bequeathed to him his brother’s collection (it included canvases of European masters who later joined the exposition of the Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts) as a gift to Moscow. More than 3 thousand paintings, graphics and sculptures collected by him, became the basis of the famous art gallery.
During the years of Soviet power, the Tretyakov Gallery has become the largest museum of national fine arts. Workers of the museum supplemented the collection of Tretyakov: now the exposition is opened with masterpieces of ancient Russian painting by Andrey Rublev, Feofan the Greek, Simon Ushakov, Dionysius. The painting department of the 18th century has been significantly expanded – almost 400 works “moved” here from palaces and private collections. To the works of K. Briullov, V. Perov, A. Savrasov, collected by Tretyakov, I. Kramskoy, I. Shishkin, V. Vasnetsov, A. Kuindzhi, V. Polenov, I. Levitan, V. Vereshchagin, I. Repin, V. Surikov … hundreds of other paintings of these artists were added. The department of Soviet art was opened and constantly replenished, the artists of which rely on the realistic traditions of the masters of the 19th century.
Now more than 57 thousand works of national fine arts are included in the priceless collection of the Tretyakov Gallery. Annually over 1.5 million visitors pass through its halls. Almost 100 traveling exhibitions are sent every year from Lavrushinsky Lane to the cities of the country. This is how Lenin’s decree is implemented, which entrusted to the Tretyakov Gallery “state educational functions” – to widely involve the masses in art.
Muscovites are rightfully proud of their famous museum State Tretyakovskaya gallery.
M. Gorky wrote: “The Tretyakov Gallery is as good and significant as the Art Theater, Basil the Blessed and all the best in Moscow.”State Tretyakovskaya gallery