The Anichkov Palace
The Anichkov Palace, under the orders of Empress Elizabeth, was presented to her favorite Alexei Razumovsky, but in our day there was almost nothing left of that era.
It was in Anichkov Palace that Vasiliy Zhukovsky presented to Alexander Pushkin his lithograph portrait with the famous inscription “The winner of the disciple from the defeated teacher …”
August 10, 1741 – Tsesarevna Elizaveta Petrovna orders to build Anichkov Palace for her.
1747-1751 – Architect Rastrelli completes the interior decoration of the palace.
1754 – The completion of the construction of the residence as a whole.
1756 – Elizaveta Petrovna gives the palace to his favorite A. G. Razumovsky.
August 28, 1761 – Empress Elizabeth comes to the palace for the last time.
February 26, 1762 – Fire in the palace.
Sept. 7, 1771 – The palace inherited Kirill Razumovsky.
June 22, 1776 – Empress Catherine II invited the palace of G.A. Potemkin “into eternal and hereditary possession”.
1785 – GA Potemkin sells the palace to the state treasury.
1855 The palace is renamed Nikolaevsky.
1881 – The palace again becomes the imperial residence.
1859-1861 In the palace there is a telephone line.
1890 – A power station was built on the territory of Anichkov, the palace was lit by electricity.
May 1, 1916 – Maria Fedorovna left Anichkov Palace.
February 1917 – The palace and the garden were transferred to the city Duma.
June 1917 – The Provisional Government passes the palace to the Ministry of Food.
June 1917 The Anichkov Palace became the property of the republic’s commissariat.
October 4, 1918 – Museum of the city is located in the Anichkov Palace.
1924 – The palace suffered from a flood in St. Petersburg.
May 1, 1935 – Museum of the city is closed.
February 12, 1937 – Opening of the Leningrad Palace of Pioneers.
1941-1942 – In the main building of Anichkov Palace there is a civilian hospital.
June 1, 1944 – Restoration of the buildings of Anichkov Palace after hostilities.
June 1, 1944 The Museum of the History of Anichkov Palace was opened.
Only seven years have elapsed since Peter, on May 116, 1703, by his royal decree ordered the castle to be built on the Hare island, giving rise to the construction of the Northern capital of the Russian state, and the city of the marshes had already grown a city that surpassed the pace of development of the most daring expectations of its founder.
In 1710, the lands adjacent to the shores of Fontanka, known as the Unnamed Erik, began to be distributed to the Russian nobles for use in the country cottages. Those places where the Empress Elizabeth Petrovna subsequently ordered the Anichkov Palace to be built, originally belonged to Anton Deviero, son of Peter the Great’s associate Alexander Menshikov. True, with Menshikov, he always had complex, far-fetched relationships, which eventually led to disastrous consequences – Davier was arrested in a fabricated case, ostensibly that he decided to build a rabbit around the Crown Prince, in order not to allow Peter II the succession, and thereby violate the will Catherine I. Antony Manuilovich was deprived of all ranks and ranks and was sent to Siberia.
Later, the forestry trader Dmitry Lukyanov bought the Devier estate. He owned the site in “200 sazhens”, that is, in the ownership of the merchant there were almost half a kilometer of land on the promenade of Fontanka and Nevsky prospect. However, on August 20, 1739, the Commission issued a decision on the St. Petersburg structure in which all land owners in the Nevsky prospect
A View of the Nevsky Prospect in the direction of the Admiralty. Yuri Vasiliev’s engraving on the drawing of MI Mahaeva, 1753.
it was prescribed to carry wooden houses, and in their place to build stone mansions. For the merchant, this decision was extremely unprofitable, the construction required a huge cost, but to think that
From him, located in the far corner of St. Petersburg, there would be some kind of profit in the future, and it was ridiculous at all. Therefore, he decided to get rid of his possessions as soon as possible and sold them to Elizaveta Petrovna.
Even before the ascension to the throne, the future Empress of the State of Russia, having acquired the land of the merchant Lukyanov, ordered the chief prosecutor Ivan Konstantinovich Shargorodsky to employ the architect Zemtsov with assistants and so that they without delay began laying the foundation for the future palace. In 1744, the Hessel Grigory Dmitriev submitted for approval to the empress sixteen variants of the future “Anichkov Paradise”.
The Emperor approved the plans, and the construction of large stone chambers was started. Count Bartolomeo Francesco Rastrelli was appointed chief observer for the work.
Work on the erection and decoration of the interior of the palace went for five years. In 1746 Elizabeth ordered on the roof of the chambers on each side to put two domes.
Located almost in a clean field, a three-story palace with a simple facade, but with absolutely amazing interiors struck its huge dimensions. Its spectacular addition was the exquisite luxurious hanging garden that faced the street. The Anichkov Palace paved the regular garden, which grew the trees and flowers brought there from all over Europe.
After the death of the Count, the palace became the property of the brother of Count, Cyril Razumovsky, as evidenced by the decree of Catherine II of September 7, 1771.
Alexei Razumovsky during the life of the Empress did not live in Anichkov: he spent most of his time in Tsarskoe Selo with Elizaveta. In the palace, presented to him by his beloved woman, he moved only after the death of Elizabeth, where he lived until the end of his life.
The first wedding gift
After the death of Razumovsky’s older brother, the owner of Anichkov became his brother, Cyril. However, he did not have the need for him, and in 1776 he sold the palace to the treasury. Empress Catherine II, in turn, presented the building as Grigory Potemkin as a gift. He reluctantly accepted the gift. Catherine had to literally persuade her favorite to take ownership of Anichkov. In 1779, the Prince of Tavrichj greatly lost and sold the palace to the retailer Nikita Shemyakin, the proceeds of the money spent on repayment of the card debt.
Catherine II learned about the deal only when the rumor of the noisy musical evenings, which were arranged in the palace with the permission of the new owner by the entrepreneurs and invited musicians, swept through St. Petersburg. The merchant owned Anichkov less than a month: on the eve of the Carnival of 1779 the Empress redeemed the palace to once again give it to Grigory Alexandrovich.
Potemkin never lived in the palace, but sometimes in the Garden pavilion gave some wonderful holidays. And in 1785 Anichkov was again bought from him in the treasury. Only nine years later, in 1794, the palace decided to rebuild the Imperial Cabinet and its jewels. In the same year, remembering the great-world receptions, which were arranged by Prince Potemkin in Anichkov, in the Garden pavilion of the palace court artists began to hold concerts and performances.
In 1801, some Antonio Kazassi provided considerable funds for the reconstruction of the pavilion in the theater, where Italian operas were played first. The project was run by architect Vincenzo Brenna.
The Chamber Fury Magazine is a diary that was conducted daily from 1695. The magazine, the founder of which was Peter I, reflected all the events that took place at the imperial court, from the course of hostilities to the description of banquets and ceremonies. The latest edition of the Chamber of Fury magazine came out in 1917.
Intendant – managing the construction. The position was established in 1743. He was in charge of supervision over all the houses, gardens and other buildings belonging to the imperial court.
In 1804, the main facade of the Anichkov Palace with a view of Fontanka was covered with a new palace pavilion, Service. The upper floor of the building was intended for the storage of works by the imperial glass and porcelain factories, and the premises of the ground floor were given to stores.
After their marriage, in April 1809, the Grand Duchess moved to live in the Anichkov Palace. From this moment on, the palace for a time Leningrad was blocked. Anichkov bridge during artillery fire. The reproduction of the picture on January 24, 1942, lost its official name, in the documents of that time it was called “the palace of Her Highness of the Grand Duchess Ekaterina Pavlovna”.
After Ekaterina Pavlovna got married in 1816 for the second time for the crown Prince Wilhelm Württemberg and moved to her husband in Stuttgart, her palace entered the Main Department of the Germans. But after a while, the halls of the palace again filled with the noise of life: Grand Duke Nikolai Pavlovich received him as a gift from his brother, Emperor Alexander I. The gift came to his new owner: he was in love with the strict palace vaults and otherwise he did not magnify the paradise . Even when Nikolai I came to the throne, he continued to live in Anichkov for a long time. During the First Seventh Lent and during the Holy Week, the Emperor was traditionally in service with the entire August family in the palace church. Here he appeared frequently: at the christening of the children at the funeral took infants, came to many wedding ceremonies. And when in December 1837 in the Winter Palace – an official residence of the Russian emperors – a fire occurred, then the emperor moved to Anichkov all the time, in which he, in his own words, spent his happy and best years of his life. After the death of the Emperor, the dowager Empress Alexandra Fedorovna lived here with her children. In Anichkov, the future emperor Alexander II, his brothers, great princes Konstantin, Nikolai and Mikhail, and sisters, grand princesses Maria, Olga and Alexander were brought up. After the crowning of Alexander II and his move to the Winter Palace, Anichkov stepped back to his background. However, remembering the love of his father to the house, in which the childhood of all his children passed, the emperor ordered to rename the Anichkov Palace in Nikolayevsky, in honor of Nicholas I. For centuries, the owners of the palace added the word “own” to the well-known name, and then went deciphering, whose palace is precisely this. The name with the indication of belonging to the royal person was indicated in official papers and invitations sent on the occasion of receptions and balls held in the palace. But under whatever name the palace did not appear in the records, even in the imperial family it was used in the old days by Anichkov.
From 1859 to 1861 Anichkov was the home of Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich. After the completion of the construction of his palace on Konnohvardeysky Boulevard, also called Nikolayevsky, to avoid misunderstandings, Anichkov again received the former name. By that time, Tsesarevich Nikolai Aleksandrovich had already grown up, and in 1864 Anichkov Palace, by right of inheritance, became the Grand Duke’s possession. However, his death blended the story cards. The owner of Anichkov became his brother, Alexander Aleksandrovich, the future emperor Alexander II, and his wife Maria Fedorovna. It was in this palace that the childhood of their son, the last Russian emperor Nicholas II, passed.
The widowed Empress Maria Fyodorovna continued the traditions laid down by her grandfather’s queen husband, Nikolai I, in the palace again began to play weddings. The most magnificent marriage took place in the imperial temple on February 9, 1914, then the grandmother Maria Feodorovna, Irina Romanova, married out for the “diamond” prince Felix Yusupov (this nickname passed from his mother, which was called the Empress).
The February Revolution deprived the palace of historical masters. He, like many palaces, estates and estates belonging to the imperial house of the Romanovs and the Russian nobility, nationalized. At first Anichkov was given to the offices of the Ministry of Food, and in his walls in the 17th year of the last century it was possible to often see a small, thin figure of Alexander Fedorovich Kerensky, who was the chairman of the Provisional Government. In 1918 the preserved interiors of the imperial quarters of Anichkov Palace were given to the Museum of the city. The museum existed there for seventeen years. In 1935, he was disbanded, and two years later, on an offer inspired by his participation in the meeting of young talents of the political figure of the USSR Sergei Kirov, the building was transferred to the children of Leningrad. On February 12, 1937, dozens of children became the first visitors to open the Leningrad Palace of Pioneers here.
This institution became the affair of the whole city. It was created by the work of thousands of working factories and factories. Children’s writer Samuel Marshak, a former witness to this epoch-making building, congratulating the children on the opening of the Palace, said: “This is not only a beautiful and rich palace, it is first of all an intelligent palace …
To open doors to a great science children helped the greatest people of the day, shone the science and creative figures of the Soviet state. The chess section was led by Mikhail Botvinnik, and Isaak Dunaevsky was the leader of the song and dance ensemble. Academician Leo Berg devoted himself to secrets of geography and zoology, the outstanding Orientalist and historian Vasily Struve told the children of distant countries, forcing love for travel and developing the horizons, and Joseph Orbeli opened the world of art to them.
Even in the difficult years of the blockade in the Palace there was an enlightenment activity. In 1941, in one wing of the building was a civilian hospital, in the other – a library in which the work with the readers did not stop. Among those who were easily injured, there were those who arranged for general readings. In the most difficult time, in the spring of 1942, music played again in the Ballroom, and graduates of the tenth classes were waltzed to the graduation ball. In the same year it was decided to open the Palace for Pioneers.
The Pioneers were abolished, but the memory of his former students, who, growing up, became representatives of the creative and scientific elite of Russia, forever remained in the history of this legendary institution.
Few of the palaces can boast so many architects that created its inimitable, amazing appearance, changing, adding and rebuilding everything from the first stage to the last roof tile. Anichkov Palace in this regard was incredibly lucky, with the creation of his hand almost almost the best architects.
In 1926, architect Hegello in cooperation with David Krichevsky erected a new type of public building – the House of Culture them. AM Gorky In1937, for the innovation of thought and the excellent performance of the project Alexander Ivanovich received international recognition and an honorary diploma at the World Parisian exhibition. Two years later, in 1939, he began to rebuild the Lutheran Church of St. Anna, completely changing its architecture and purpose – in its place a new sanctuary appeared – the temple of the cinema, the cinema “Spartak”.
Between the construction of the House of Culture and the cinema there were many other buildings, reconstructions and projects, the most significant of which was the Palace of Pioneers at Fontanka. The same Anichkov Palace, for the past century, was a wedding gift from the Imperial House of the Romanovs, in 1935 they were presented to children.
The capital’s rebuilding of the palace lasted for two years from the date of the approval of the project provided by Hegello to the State Commission. The perestroika did not touch only those interiors that had an artistic and historical value, as, for example, the Grand Dining Room finish, performed by Luigi Ruska. In the former quarters of Nikolai Aleksandrovich, on the ground floor there was a lobby with a winter garden, on the third floor where the maids of the Empress and servants lived, they built a lecture room with a cinema hall and several play rooms. The rest rooms of Maria Fedorovna were painted by masters from Palekh, and where the wardrobe emperors were once stationed, a fabulous world appeared illustrating the works of Alexander Pushkin and Maxim Gorky. The owners of the palace were children. So somebody’s fairy tale became a fairy tale that realizes Alexander Hegello.
The architect died on August 11, 1965.
Even experts, the researchers of the palace rest, restorers and scientists can not assert with absolute accuracy what invaluable treasures hide under their thick layers of plaster, which is hidden in wall niches, and that one can open once to those who try once again to rebuild the multi-faceted Anichkov Palace .
The oldest palace on Nevsky Prospekt looks completely different from the famous engraving of Mikhail Mahaev, performed on the 50th anniversary of St. Petersburg in 1753.
Under the orders of Empress Elizabeth Petrovna, he was built for the favorite of Alexei Razumovsky, and in our days there was almost nothing left of that era.
Already there is no access from the side of Fontanka, which allowed the guests of the palace to sail directly to the steps of the entrance. However, during the time of Razumovsky’s main gate were located as well as now, on Nevsky Prospekt.
There, where there is now the Alexandrinsky Theater, a large palace pavilion was built, which was called Garden, where the first owner placed a picture gallery and arranged masquerades, balls and numerous concerts. Behind the palace along the whole of Nevsky was a pond with tall shrubbery banks. Between the pond and the palace, opposite Malaya Sadova, which was called during the time of Catherine II by Shuvalov, a fountain was fired. For a long time on the semi-collapsed walls of the garden pavilions, preserved after the rebuilding in 1818 by Carl Rossi, in the 1930s, the frescoes of Gonzaga’s work were visible.
The territory adjacent to the Anichkov Palace was enormous in size. It was framed by a magnificent lattice fence. Carl Rossi, by making changes in the appearance of the palace, adjoining the garden to him and the many pavilions, abolished the old barrage. In his place in 1818 a new one was designed, which the architect himself designed, but there is a version that the sketch of this fence was created by the King of Prussia Friedrich-Wilhelm III. It consisted of 534 copies, and it was crowned with 28 sculptural images of double-headed eagles. During the Soviet era, the grid was completely lost and restored only in 2003.
Then the palace was reconstructed for the favorite of great Catherine Grigory Potemkin Ivan Starov. It was a reconstruction in the spirit of classicism. Then, at the beginning of the nineteenth century, such outstanding masters as Giacomo Quarenghi, Luigi Ruska, Karl Ivanovich Rossi worked here.
In the second half of the nineteenth century, the palace changed again, but in the spirit of eclecticism. Thus, today Anichkov is a monument of different epochs, different great styles. Despite this, he leaves a light and light feeling. Probably because it was given to the Leningrad Palace of Pioneers, and for a long time filled with laughter and joy. Or maybe because there really is a special aura. Aura of Anichkovsky Paradise.
Alexander III Museum
Today, the Anichkov Palace is largely the palace of Alexander III, and not at all the palace of Nicholas I, and not least the palace of Alexei Razumovsky. An excellent service to him was the fascination of Alexander III with Russian art. He was a passionate collector of paintings, and here, in Anichkov Palace, he arranged his own museum. The collection collected by the emperor formed the basis of the world-famous State Russian Museum.
Initially, in the part of the palace where Alexander III was located, there was a palace church. The first reorganization was carried out by Luigi Ruska, who placed in this part of Anichkov’s room princes of Peter and George Oldenburg.
In 1817, these premises were converted into private apartments of Grand Duke Nikolai Pavlovich, there were its Reception and Adjutant. By 1856 their place was occupied by the Znamenaya and Imperial Cabinet, which had a huge oven.
In that same year, one of the major restructures of the palace came to an end: the windows of the southern wall were locked up, and only two windows remained on the western and eastern sides. When in 1866 the Imperial Cabinet was moved to the place of the Empress’s Alexandra Fedorovna Library at that time, they erected the Billiard room in the vacant room. This layout existed until 1870, when Hippolytus Monigetti was instructed to change it. He united the former Billiard room with the nearby Living Room with a series of arches leaning against the columns. As a result, a two-zone gallery was created.
Originally the Imperial Library was located on the left side of the palace with windows in the garden.
In Anichkov Palace, by the great Russian portraitist Valentin Serov, perhaps the best portrait of Emperor Nicholas II was written. He was created as a gift to Empress Alexandra Fedorovna. This was an unofficial image of the king for private quarters in Anichkov Palace. It depicts the Emperor not as it was supposed to write the autocrat – in a solemn uniform with epaulettes, all of which were covered with precious stones, orders and pain of the imperial chain over the shoulder with the units of diamond monograms, and in the simple pit of the Preobrazhensky Regiment.
Work on the painting of Serov began in Tsarskoe Selo, and ended in one of the pavilions of Anichkov Palace, in the one facing the avenue. Initially, the work went with great difficulty. At one point the master was already ready to refuse the order, nothing left, the emperor was disappointed, and Serov nervously excited the permanent presence of Empress Alexandra Fedorovna interfering in the process.
Since then, there has been a funny story that illustrates vividly how Alyka tried to take any situation under his personal control. When the first sketch was completed, the wife of the emperor ordered Nikolai II to accept a posture similar to that in which he was depicted on the canvas and, taking a hand in his hands, began to carefully peer into the features of the portrait, comparing them with nature.
In 1817, the painting was renewed by the author of numerous interiors, including the Tauride and Winter palaces, Giovanni Batista Scotti, rewriting the dome with graphic technique “kiaroskuro” in pale gray tones.
Only in 1866, when the newlyweds Alexander III and Princess Dagmar settled into the palace, the historic destination was returned to the building. The emperor ordered the library to be moved from the Winter Palace to Anichkov. The interior of the Prince of Oldenburg Library served as the source of the inspiration of architect Ernest Gibert, who was invited to reconstruct the palace. But in 1868, Ippolit Monigetti, who changed her finishes in the spirit of the Renaissance, was attracted to the design of the interiors. After the revision, the Library became an octagonal hall. In its four corners were niches, one of which was an entrance, the other – a built-in fireplace, the third led by the mezzanine, and the fourth, disguised as a bookcase, – into a secret room. The ceiling was decorated with a molded ceiling with oak inserts, created by Alexander Dylev on the drawings of Monigetti. The situation of the Library was also carried out by F. Melzer in the person of the companion N. Stange. They put in the palace wardrobes, sofas and armchairs made of bright oak, embroidered with leather, wall coverings, parquet and carved doors. Also, five chandeliers were executed directly at the Strang’s bronze factory. The library interiors completed the carpets woven in France, and the green silk curtains covering the mirror windows of the windows.
During the entire existence of the palace, the interior of the living room has changed many times. Only in the Yellow or Golden living room, which received its name because of the yellow color of the upholstery, for at least one hundred years, there were at least ten kinds of hours.
In the description of 1904, the bronze watches with gilding, adorned with mythical figures and bronze with patina, created in the nineteenth century are mentioned. Lighting also undergone a change: under Nicholas I, four chandelier crystal lamps were lit by the golden living room, and already under Alexander III they were replaced by bronze chandeliers, gilded on pedestals and columns of marble.
The second living room, Golubaya, got its name only after the reconstruction of the palace by Carl Rossi in 1817. Before that
She was wearing the name Malinova.
Its walls in 1809 were inhabited by a purple velvet, and the ceiling adorned the ceiling painted by Theodor Shcherbakov.
Rossi changed the upholstery to a blue velvet with a silver shade and separated the panels from each other with gilded carved baguettes. This time the painting of ceilings by the Yellow and Blue living rooms supplemented the thematic orientation of each room.
Plots decorating the Yellow Living Room relate us to the theme of love and marriage “Sacrifice of Athena” and “Wedding in the temple of the Amur”, while the Blue, inspired by the mythological images of Apollo – “Triumph of Apollo” and “Parnassus” – as if intended for the chanting of courage and beauty owners of the palace.
If you compare the palace plans made by Hippolyte Monighetti or Carl Rachau, you can easily see that the Winter Garden is one of the few premises of the Anichkov Palace, which remained virtually unchanged. The only thing that did not survive in its original form is the picturesque ceiling. During the reconstruction of the palace in 1936, student Ilya Repin, artist Valentin Shcherbakov, decorated him with paintings from the pioneer life, but in 1990 during the restoration of the Palace of Creativity all the images were whitewashed.
Until today, detailed descriptions of what the palace was during the time of its last owners – and the Winter Garden of Emperor Alexander III and his wife Maria Feodorovna. The interior designer in those days was occupied by the favorite architect of His Imperial Majesty – Maximilian Mesmacher, and the furniture for the Winter Garden, as well as for most of the palace, was carried out at the furniture factory Melzer F. and K0.
The interior of the Winter Garden and the atmosphere were endured in Louis XVI’s favorite Mesmacher style. The word “garden” in the name of the room implied abundance of plants; for them there were Created special flowerbeds-curtains, which were installed in semicircular pallets made of wood, decorated with bronze and gilded billets, flowers and exotic trees.
Having at least a part of fantasy, one could easily imagine yourself strolling through an Italian villa. All pleased the eye: both emerald foliage and the abundance of roses brought here in the tubes of the Elagin Palace, and graceful sculptures, such as the “Amur” by the French master Etienne Falcone, and the unusual beauty of the Chinese vases. Here was a collection of carved articles from Ural gems, mounted on a table with painted medallions.
Alexandra III dressing room
A small space shared between the Imperial Cabinet and the Museum changed its appearance more often than all the other palace rooms. Under Razumovsky’s column, there was a staircase adjacent to the church, which descended along which one could go to Nevsky Prospekt.
From 1801 to 1812, the ladder was shifted deep, freeing up the place of a small room where the maid of the Grand Duchess Ekaterina Pavlovna lived. Carl Rossi, who was instructed to make changes to the palace for his new owners, reduced the width of the staircase, and separated the remaining free space between the Cabinet of Grand Duke Nikolai Pavlovich, the Living Room and the Umbrian.
One of the last architects involved in the redevelopment of the palace was Maximilian Mesmacher, who in 1886 had transferred Alexander III to the upper part of the palace, and in her place designed Dressing room. The interiors created under the direction of Mesmacher, with virtually no changes, have survived to this day. Wardrobe dressing is finished with panels of Karelian birch, from the same material at the firm F. Melzer, doors and cabinets were carved. The passage room, from which the emperor left on the Parade staircase, is covered with mahogany panels.
Cabinet of the Empress Maria Feodorovna
Until the middle of the eighteenth century on the site of the Empress Maria Feodorovna’s room and the room next to her – the Second reception room – there was one room. Here was the Blue Living Room, created under the design of Luigi Ruska in 1809. The painting of the ceiling in it, as in the whole palace, was executed by Theodore Shcherbakov. In 1817, Carl Rossi changed the layout of the rooms, moved the Blue Living Room to the former then Red, and settled the Divan on the vacant space. After nearly forty years, Ernest Gibert, rebuilding the palace interiors for new owners, performed this room in the style of Louis XVI.
After reconstruction, the room intended for the Empress’s Cabinet was square. In the northwest corner of it, surrounded by flowers and greenery of palm trees, there was a sculpture of Tatyana, carved out by Isobelli, inspired by her creation as a poem by A. S. Pushkin’s “Eugene Onegin”. In the corner there was a large piano, on the sides of which were two storeys with notes.
Temple of Himeenia
It was here that the most happy days passed in the life of Nicholas I, Alexander II, and Alexander III, and the last Russian emperor Nicholas II. For them, it was the temple of Himeenia. The Russian emperors remembered this place with nostalgia, because all the joys of their childhood were connected with the Anichkov Palace.
The history of the palace in the context of the “wedding gift” began in 1809, when Emperor Alexander I presented Anichkov Palace with his beloved sister Ekaterina Pavlovna on her wedding day. Napoleon Bonaparte himself married Ekaterina Pavlovna, but was rejected. The Grand Princess was in love with Peter Bagration without memory.
Anichkov Palace one way or another, but has always been inextricably linked with the cultural life of the Northern Capital. There are many moments involved with it, which influenced the development of Russian literature.
Even with the first owner of the palace, Count Razumovsky, the palace lived adjutant Alexei Grigorievich, Alexander Sumarokov. It was in Anichkov in 1774 that he created one of his most curious works – a poem “Letter to a friend in Moscow”, a kind of topographical riddle.
Anichkov Palace, like many other imperial palaces of Alexander III, became a museum during the life of the autocrat. In the walls of the palace they found shelter magnificent objects of painting and sculpture, which the emperor enthusiastically collected throughout his life. After nationalization, the richest collection of Alexander III was dismantled in the museum repositories of the USSR, and the walls, where it was stored, in 1918 occupied the Museum of the city.
His expositions talked not only about the development of the city culture of Petrograd, but also about other metropolitan areas and provincial towns of Russia and the whole world as a whole. Headed the Museum of JI.A. Ilyin His efforts in the 20-ies of the last century the museum acquired the statue of Russia’s largest scientific and educational center. However, in 1928, the liquidation of the exhibits of the museum began, which led to its final dismantling and closure in 1935. For seven years the museum’s funds were inflicted with irreparable damage. The preserved periodically exhibited in museum exposition, but each year the number of art objects was less and less. Before the closing, the remains of former luxury were transported to Rumyantsev’s mansion, located on the English embankment.
At the end of the last century, in 1991, it was decided to revive the historical tradition, which was laid down under Alexander III, and to open the Anichkov Palace in the Museum of History. On February 12, the first visitors were able to look at the Anichkov Palace in a new way, to see its rooms and halls through the prism of history. The exposition, located in the halls where the personal museum of Emperor Alexander III was once located, details the events and dates of the palace from the first day of the foundation to the present period.
Among the items of antiquity that have come to us through centuries, the museum presents exhibits and recent years, things belonging to famous employees and pupils of the Palace of Pioneers, for a general overview.
In addition to them, the collection of documents, paintings and books is the richest collection of the museum’s collection, confirming the enormous educational work conducted for many years by teachers and educators of the Palace of Creativity of the Young. Here, for example, is a work book of Isaac Dunaevsky, who led the ensemble of songs and dances at the Palace of Pioneers.
The lithographs of Alexei Pakhomov, depicting the life of the Palace from the pre-war years to the postwar period, testify to the unsurpassed talent of his pupils. Among them were actors of theater and cinema Tatyana Doronina, Mikhail Kazakov, Sergey Jursky, neurophysiologist Natalia Bekhtereva, opera singer Elena Obraztsova, chess players Boris Spassky and Victor Korchnoi, astronaut Georgy Grechko and Vladimir Shatalov.
The Anichkov Palace