The folk art of Uzbekistan
The folk art of Uzbekistan
In this region of magnificent vegetation and fertile soils between the two great rivers, ancient civilizations with a high artistic culture emerged and developed: the Kushan school of Middle Asian antiquity, the art school of the Sogdian slave-holding society, the Islamic art of the Arab Caliphate.
The Arabian Caliphate of Central Asia was conquered by the middle of the VIII century. The population brought up in pagan mythological culture was forcibly deprived of many artistic traditions, rules of strict regulation of creativity were introduced. Mutual penetration of Sogdian farmers and nomad Turks led to the formation of a complex cultural conglomerate in which the artistic tradition of ancient farmers prevailed. From here developed the very types of crafts that cater to the needs of large cities. Actual heights reached ceramics, jewelry, handicrafts, embroidery, gold embroidery, metal processing. At the same time, the weak development of carpet production, the absence of felt, and the slight spread of palaces are characteristic.
During the period of feudalism, the rule of Islam, the flowering of ornamental art, the basic principles of the art of multi-colored watering tile, wood carvings were formed.
The tile lining of beautiful color combinations impresses with its perfection. Thousands of talented folk artists took part in decorating the medieval buildings of Uzbekistan, which are grandiose in size and sophisticated in decorative design. The museum collections preserved samples of Nuratin works from the 15th century. The thread on the marble has some peculiarity. It is by no means a dry geometry, although elements of geometric ornament prevail in it. Often, the plant motifs of a six-petal flower, shamroot on a flexible shoots, leaves and branches. The general character of the composition is a closed medallion of a sufficiently strict, precise apricot.
For a long period of time, from the first centuries of our era, a certain national style developed, which did not change much, preserving the basic principles of constructing the composition, the techniques of thread, combining with the surface of the wall, ceiling, niche, cornice.
There are some regional differences in the Uzbek art of gang carving.
To achieve this effect, the ash was added to the gang, which is a background for the relief, and it gave the mixture a beautiful bluish tone, and on this gang there was a nice, second, white layer of cut-through pattern.
In Ferghana, jewelry made of cannula was often performed not by thread technology, but by casting into shapes. Accomplished in this way, they differed in small and flat relief. It was in Fergana that widespread reception of the carving of portals of fireplaces in the interiors of residential and public buildings was received.
Openwork lattices created in the rooms a whimsical game of light and shadow and enhanced the impression of the oriental splendor of the interiors. Usually the living rooms of the Uzbek family looked rather modest. But the main main room, intended for guests, – “mehmonhona” was a colorful and luxurious sight. A special beauty of the room was given to the daisy carved, as if the stallactious cornice – “Sharaf”.
The beauty and elegance of Bukhara’s carved hunch was different. He was snow-white. His design was elegant, filigree, small, with a medium-high relief, which did not give a great light. The edges of the thread were somewhat flattened. This achieved the unity of the plane. The uniform viscose of the pattern uniformly filled the surface. An example of the outstanding art of the Bukharian folk carvers on the canch is the extant palace of the Bukhara emir, Sitori-Mahi-Khoz, preserved in excellent condition. The White Hall of this palace is famous, which affects even the sophisticated spectator with the purity of a flexible, winding, streaming thread, which seems to have no limit. Exquisite arabesque compositions are organically linked with architecture.
The favorite among the Bukhara masters were a star-shaped carving of a cannon, a floral ornament and the appearance of a luxuriant bouquet of flowers that appeared in the eighteenth century. As a rule, the thread arrangement on a certain architectural surface – the portal, in the niche, on the part of the wall, the screen – is completed by the archery. From the nineteenth century, the dominant role along with the geometric ornament – “griffe” begins to play the motive of blossoming iris. Characteristic of compositions is the use of medallions, which contain calligraphically written sayings – “Katabe”.
The continuous stitching of the wickerwork of the carved cannon ornament can be framed by a border, which is smaller than the central figure of the figure – it is “root” and “zajir”.
By the beginning of the 20th century the desire for decorative, multi-colored interior was intensified. Alabaster plaster – the knock begins to be painted with colored paints. To enhance the decorative properties, to give the gloss the paint surface was diluted on the yolk. Bright painting covered the ceiling and cornices.
In these paintings, fairly colorful, colorful, at least ten different colors were used simultaneously. The geometric ornament was less present, the preference was given to magnificent plant designs, multicolored bouquets in vases, branches of flexible weeping willows. Since the beginning of the 20th century, a decorative motif – “blooming garden” – has become widespread.
These colorful paintings have somewhat deviated from the exquisite stringency of the gang carving. They showed more lyrical warm feelings, the spontaneity of the emotional experience of nature.
The craftsmanship of the gang-thread is a cultural property of the Uzbek people. It successfully develops in Soviet times. The perfect decor is the decor of the interiors performed by a group of folk masters at the Tashkent State Opera and Ballet Theater named after Alisher Navoi. The building of the theater was built by architect Shusev, taking into account the features of the Uzbek national architecture. The facade of the building, the lobby, the central foyer and the auditorium were decorated with a carved crocheted by the outstanding artist Tishpulat Arslankulovym. Six side halls on three floors were decorated in the art traditions of various canyon thread centers. Khivinsky was decorated with motifs of ancient woodcarving in Khiva. Famous master Abdullah Boltayev worked above this hall. “Termezsky” and “Bukhara” halls were issued by Shirin Muradov, a well-known carrot on canch. The “Samarkand” Hall became a remarkable creative success of the famous folk artist Kulei Jalilov, the “Fergana” hall was performed by a Kokand master, a connoisseur of his work, Saidmahmuud Narkuziev. “Tashkent” Hall did Tishpulat Arslankulov. The marble staircases of the theater make us remember the best museum samples of the Nurati masters. The decor of the marble staircases was brilliantly performed by the brothers Dzhalil and Bolt Juraev.
Striking a huge amount of work done, high craftsmanship of all elements of the design. Twelve ornamental boards of the Khiva Hall, a ceiling with a central chandelier, a decoration of the panels of the auditorium, the design of the dome floorings on arched sails – all these elements represent the viewer ingenuity in ornamentation and strict taste, the harmony of the combination with architecture.
The thread was decorated with doors of buildings, gates, gates, shutters, columns and ceilings.
In the mosque of Juma, in Khiva, this outstanding monument of Uzbek and world art, there are columns that have been transferred here from earlier buildings. Columns have been around for a thousand years. They testify to the high craftsmanship of Uzbek woodcarvers. The column is plastic, it has an expanding base, like a bud, from which its trunk rises upwards. The base is decorated with a deep, juicy, plastic vegetable thread. In its appearance, this thread is far from the geometrically clear stitch of the arabesque thread on the gang. The carving of wood from ancient times in Uzbekistan was distinguished by its juiciness and realistic character. In subsequent times, it became a bit more geometric, stricter and dry in the drawing.
However, to this day it remains more plastic and picturesque than hunch. Apparently, the material itself told the master the character of a whimsical curvilinear thread. Many columns of residential buildings in Khiva of the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries are decorated with excellent wood carvings. The thread was covered in Khiva lattice – the panjar.
The richest traditions of folk craftsmanship in woodcarving fruitfully develop in our time. They found a worthy continuation in the works of Maxud Ka. Carved tables, doors, boxes, he covered the carving, using the motifs of the traditional Khin carved grilles – the panjar. K. Khaydarov in the year 1970 decorated the carved wooden doors of the front doors of the entrance to the branch of the Central Museum of V. I. Lenin in Tashkent. These and many other works are executed with great skill outstanding works of folk art.
Architectural decoration occupied a special place in the Uzbek art of decorating interiors. In addition to decoration of walls and ceilings, the decoration of the interior were wooden carved shelves, doors, shutters, gang walls, niches – “kazamon”. All this played a significant role in creating a national image of the Uzbek dwelling. Decorative, colorful, multicolor distinguished it from all others in Central Asia. The Uzbek house was even slightly oversaturated with works of decorative art: colorful embroidery here, and a metallic dish glowing with its glittering glow, and ceramics of funny, vivid colors. The floor was covered with carpets. Suzani – these colorful embroideries – covered in pockets of colored blankets in the niches. Low carved cabinets, tables, chests, traditional for the Uzbek dwelling, contributed to the creation of a colorful spectacle.
For the production of applied arts for everyday life, the main centers of the sixteenth century were Bukhara, Samarkand, Tashkent, Shakhrisabz.
Uzbekistan was at the crossroads of trade routes, was famous for the richest eastern bazaars. Uzbek craftsmen were skilled in the manufacture of various items of utensils and jewelry. Already in the folk Kazakh song “Er-Targin” of the XVI century, with enthusiasm, there was talk of a great variety of artistic crafts of Uzbekistan.
Fabrics with moire divorces of abstract processing (“abr” – a cloud) – these are famous adras and bekasab. Especially beautiful Bukhar Adras with vague red-blue contours of rhombuses. An interesting drawing of the adras is interesting – “chiang” – a scorpion, which is built in a strict infinite rhythm of rapport of fabric. The drawing is large, has a contour, as if dissolving in a shiny, shimmering field of silk fabric. Very beautiful striped beaksabs of Fergana Valley – alternation of longitudinal bands of blue, green and purple. The amazing fascinating beauty of pearl-pink bands with moire tide, alternating with black stripes in the tissues of Karshi.
The national school of weaving has developed in Uzbekistan in the Fergana Valley. From the Xth century Uzbek fabrics were famous. They were exported far to Byzantium and Egypt. In the Middle Ages, “for a single invoice, they gave all the underground feed to Bukhara” – S. Mokhakamov, in his study “Uzbek Abortion Tissues”, is an interesting testimony to the greatest recognition of the works of Uzbek craftsmen.
Slavic Uzbek striped cloths were used for bathrobes. They were so widespread that today we identify Uzbek textiles with these striped beaksabs. The best fabrics for men’s dressing gowns have always been six-band Namangan “Olty Kishak.” Also, bright, red-green striped fabrics were used in huge demand in the eastern markets. The weight of gold was valued in many countries by the raspberry silk velvet “bakhmal” from Samarkand.
Traditions of Uzbek weaving in our time successfully continues the Margilan Silk Factory in Fergana. A lot of vintage drawings are used by the combine.
Cotton fabrics – “mat”, “carbos” were made with wooden stamps “Kolibov”, which were made in two colors – red and black. In the eyebrow, natural colors look especially good – velvety thick, saturated color in a beautiful blend of flaming red and shades of black. The fabric field, the tone of the pattern when rinsing and fixing the dyes acquire a slightly pink tint. Such an eyebrow served many purposes: for the lining of blankets, for wrapping bedding for the day, for everyday clothes.
Drawings of old, traditional traditional designs. The open-cut frescoes of Afrasiab in Samarkand, which date back to the 6th and 8th centuries, can make an impression of the patterns on the clothes of the ancient Sogdians. These patterns are often repeated in the ears of a much later time. About traditional Uzbek embroidery, its artistic merits are primarily attributed to Bukhara products. On a red background, like the finest golden web, silver and gold thread, flashing, creating a nearly jewelry pattern throughout the field. At the center of this eyebrow is a large eight-petalled outlet. At the corners of the nailers are circles. Between the field of the center and the narrow edges of the edge there is a wide strip of large enough decorative, beautiful harmonic pattern. The nailboard seems to radiate the heat of the sun, it sparkles with a pattern. It was in Bukhara that many things were made of piece products, tablecloths, napkins, cover. The most frequent pattern was the repetition of a well-known figure – “body” – “almond”, resembling the Russian “cucumber” pattern. There were many ornaments, and each had a name. Moreover, the name often differed in engagement, interpreting in detail the meaning of this drawing. It was like this: “The Apple that made it stupid,” that is, it fell. As D. Fakhretdinov, a researcher in applied arts in Uzbekistan, who was engaged in the analysis of Uzbek ornamentation, often portrayed traces of animals, and this had a special meaningful meaning, because in the conditions of frequent droughts the trace of an animal that goes to the water depicts the presence of water, t e. life But even such a traditional and conservative kind of decoration, as the ornament, changes over time, with the changing environment changes itself or changes its name, associating itself with the new content: the renowned ornament “The Eyebrows of the Mountain Quail”, which with the construction of Turkshiba began to be called, was redefined. – “Train”.
Different fabrics went on sewing a national costume.
Suit. Until the beginning of the 20th century, ancient forms were kept in clothing: dresses, shirts, dressing gowns, which had a rather archaic type of cut – wide, single-crowned, long. The men’s dressing gown was dressed with a velvet embroidered belt, or simply tied to the clod – “white god”, which was an embroidered folded handkerchief. Women wore dresses made of abractive silk fabrics or stuffed, or just smooth fabrics without a picture.
Embroidery For the feudal lords and the Muslim clergy, beautiful silk embroidery was performed for themselves personally. The thread was painted with vegetable dyes. Fabrics for embroidery served as velvet, satin, silk, cotton mat.
Before embroidery began, the fabric was marked. Not all the craftsmen owned this talent of drawing up the pattern of future embroidery. The designer of the pattern – “chizmakash” enjoyed great respect in society and invited to the house specifically for the start of new significant works. The large size of embroidery was performed by several craftsmen – here the work of collective work was the custom of “hashar”. Beautiful embroidered curtains – “suzani” embroidered often for more than two years. It seemed that the fantasy of the craftsman did not know the limits: here the surrounding world, light and fabulously transfigured, permeated with light and joyous world perception, turned the fabric into a work of high art. Sometimes inscriptions were inserted into the embroidery, such as, for example: “That the pain was pleasing to the eye, so that he brought joy to that which belongs”.
Suzani – “needle”, embroidered needle pattern. Images that are found in suzani speak of the very ancient traditions of Uzbek embroidery. They repeat the motifs of ancient frescos and medieval book thumbnails. In them a great kinship with those embroidered shards of the ancient Bactrians, which were found in the burial of Noin-Ula, related to the II century BC. e The same floral ornament, executed by a flute. For centuries, irises, cloves, tulips, malva, pomegranate, almonds, poppy heads, or even fantastic, invented flower “gul” are embroidered.
By types, embroideries are Bukhara, Samarkand, Tashkent, Fergana and Shakhrinsbyzsk. In Khiva, embroidery was not widespread. Puritan embroidery was carried out mainly by Tajiks.
As well as Bukhara nailers, the embroidery of Bukhara has its own special system. Bukhara suzani are lush flowers in a network of filigree diamond patterns in the central field of composition, and the ridge consists of three-, six- and eight-beam sockets, with middle colors of different colors. How sophisticated was the artistic sense of the craftsman! The socket is not just embroidered with red threads, but slightly touched by the blue outline, as if the blue sky was flaming over the flower, and the socket was lit up like a red sun. The whole pattern of embroidery shimmering, playing with shades of colors. The flexible branches of the wave-like rhythm in the kim is the famous “Islimi” pattern, one of the tops of decorative Uzbek embroidery. The light, relaxed ornament is distinguished by genuine virtuosity and subtle elegance.
Sometimes the pattern of Bukhara embroidery from swirling sockets, framed with pearls, makes it recall the ancient tissues of Sogdas with their solar signs, and the entire embroidery field is perceived as the universe with the starry sky and the moon. By the way, these sockets are also called – “moon”.
With all the prohibitive regulatory rules of Islam, Uzbek embroidery through centuries carried the images of life-affirming, filled with full-blooded life, reflections on the world and man in this world. Frequently embroidery carries in itself the image of a realistic person, around which solar cocks with dissected tails, bright, motley celestial birds …
Fegany differed from Fergana embroidery, which also featured swirl outlets with pearls or sockets surrounded by clearly pronounced teeth. More geometric shapes of circles and rings were framed by a thin, almost graphic pattern of the branch of “islimi”. Fergana embroidery was carried out mainly on the white background of cotton fabric, and only from the end of the XIX century began to use a colored background, but very limited gamma – dark green or violet color.
A distinctive feature of the seams of these embroidery techniques is the use of a highly twisted silk thread.
Tashkent panels – “Hulkurpa” with large decorative red, even, rather, cherry-red circles – “oh” are distinguished by their peculiarity. A specialist in Uzbek embroidery O. Sukhareva produces the name “Hulkurpa” from the Arabic word “falyak”, which means heaven, the heavenly vault. Circles – “oh” in this case – the image of the moon. In the panel there is a lot of embroidered background, similar to the heavenly space. Performed such embroidery flooring – bass.
Samarkand’s classic embroidery is a cherry socket surrounded by large black curls filling the entire field. With regard to the size of the product, the design looks monumental due to large shapes.
Earlier Samarkand embroidery was somewhat different in color: the cold-red raspberry socket was somewhat animated with a bright red vein and a green mid-point and surrounded by dark green leaves. The socket in the center could have beams or circles and was more chamber, lyrical in its image than thick red spots of current embroidery, actively contrasting with the velvet-black branches of the environment.
It is precisely in Samarkand embroidery that the ancient motif of “black chirog” – a four-tin lamp, which was a part of the cult of fans of fire in Central Asia, is encountered.
Occasionally, sockets, which are usually perceived as flowers, turn into spiral twisted circles of vortices – straight-way celestial bodies that travel through the sky in a dynamic rhythm. Among the images of the starry sky, the sun and the moon fly sunny birds. With all the dynamics of the patterns, their scattering throughout the field panel composition, as a rule, clearly arranged and strictly balanced.
Samarkand embroidery – “scarecrows” – the most monumental, full of Maracandan symbolism – the ancient Samarkand.
In contrast to Nem, Shahrisabz embroidery looks like a lush blossoming oriental garden. Embroidered with silk, they are tender in color, colorful and completely cover the whole field of fabric with flexible, shimmering shades of silk paint. This is the famous seam of “Yaraki”, or “Iraqi”. He requires the highest skill. Here is a typical embroidery of the nineteenth century: on a dark violet silk with colored silks embroidered many circular circles surrounded by pearls, but on the outer edge of each circle there are six birds with raised wings, with a trilight on his head, a cloth. The birds have bifurcated tails at the ends, shamrocks – paws, well-drawn broadly open eyes. These celestial sunshine birds are so familiar to us by the images of bronze brushes still from the mounds of the Alans of the North Caucasus.
Sockets – circles often acquire vortex multi-branch branches. And among them we see the image of the battle of cocks, which have fluttered their tails and are leaping against each other. But here is a simple jug and a bunch of flowers in it. There are almost realistic, but with a large decorative feeling, the tulips and the fruits of a grenade, as well as the heads of the late poppy, are distinguished. The pattern of embroidery, located in the background, filling the space between the large forms of sockets, small, fractional, jewelry-thin, as if ringing with its thin, almost scan filaments. Flexible plasticity of these lines as the tunes of the eastern dragging song. There is some capricious, whimsical plastic of these drawings – the famous seam – “Iroki”.
On a white mate, embroidery with a basma-smooth deck, a spot, not a line, is based on a combination of cold colors in shades of blue, crimson. Sometimes a white fabric pattern is executed with colored silk and red wool at the same time, this achieves a different degree of pattern relief.
In the museums of Moscow and Leningrad, scatters were preserved – gifts to the Russian tsars from the Bukhara emirs, performed by the Shakhrisabz craftsmen. These huge panels – the dastarkhanes strike the spectator with their mastery, inexhaustible fantasy and enormous laboriousness of execution. In such gift items there was a large variety of colors – shades of red, raspberry, blue, green, yellow, gray, turquoise, and azure. And all the colors are not bright, but soft, pure tone. Embroidered leaf is light green thread. His tip was touched lightly with a raspberry light. Sometimes a gentle harmony of embroidery shades the contrast of white and black. In some embroidery there are more than ten tones of the same color.
The distinctive feature of Shahrisabz embroidery was the wide border, which is sometimes even wider than the central field. Palms and circles are usually present in the kite.
On one of them the entire field is embroidered: “Amazing knitting, admiring the heart.”
Embroidered cape became like a passport of a person and clearly spoke about which of the places he was. Ferghana embroidered capes from the scent area, featuring tetrahedral, black and white silk embroidery, in the center of which each side was a traditional bodice, have now become a nationwide Uzbek tweezers. The beautiful Shahrisibian muzzle, which was completely sewn by the yoke, also found widespread distribution. In the last decades, in the decoration of the tubes, the beautiful technique of embroidered embroidery with the small cross of the polychromatic color scale of the “term” was revived.
Gold embroidery. Gold embroidered horses, bags, worship items, clothing. Bukhara court demanded luxury and blinding shine. A sonorous emer, lined with golden sewing from turquoise to shoe, produced a stunning impression on the poor Bukhara streets. Now, a century later, in expositions of museum collections you can see and appreciate the hand-made artwork of Uzbek gold embroidery, the unique form of folk art.
Embroidery with large medallions, or with the rhythm of semicircular arches, or a wavy vegetative shoemaking flushes out a velvet robe of crimson, red or green silk velvet. The material plays an active role in the composition of the entire pattern. Sometimes, in order to enhance decorative qualities under a gold embroidery, there is a cloth different than the background, color. In this case, the game of coloring relationships is even more difficult. Often, a thread of golden sewing is placed a bit on the edge, and the pattern receives a known facet, which enhances the sparkle of gold in the bright rays of the southern sun. It happens that a silver thread is introduced into the golden gay pattern, and then the effect of the light emitting diode is obtained, which makes the embroidery of gold embroidered, emphasizing its rich flamboyance. Mastery of Uzbek artists, taste, possession of technique are endless. In some works, threads of different color shades of gold are used. This creates additional effects. The uniqueness of motifs of patterns, technical ingenuity, mastery of performance put these works in line with the best masterpieces of art in Central Asia.
Golden sewing of Bukhara dressing gowns is always related to the design of clothing and takes into account the movement of a person. It shades different elements. Its rhythm, scale, location align with the design of the decorated clothing.
Performed by masters of the work sometimes are complex structures. Thus, the traditional breastpiece of women “haikal” is a combination of numerous plates engraved with a complicated arabesque pattern, chains between them, pendants at the lower edge, lapel pendants, hanging rounded helmets. Even with a woman’s calm position, the ornament constantly fluctuates, sparkles, is in a continuous trembling motion. It informs the decoration of painting, creates an image fleeting, elusively mobile, volatile.
Earrings, bracelets, women’s nalobnye and breastplate decorations, beads, cases for amulets, belts decorated with a ligament of a complex, fine pattern with a truly eastern splendor and generosity. From the beginning of the 20th century, instead of stones in decorations, colored glass was used, which created even more colorful variety.
Solemnity and festivity are characteristic of the traditional Uzbek temporal adornment of “bodoma”. Red corals abundantly surround the golden scan of three oval forms of almond-bodoma, which are internally filled with turquoise. But this does not seem to be enough, the forms of bodoma have gold leafs of pendants, which descend on the coral thread.
To the end of the vertical section of the women’s shirt was suspended decoration “Peshkalta”, which had a practical purpose: on it hung numerous keys from chests with products. The keys were on chains with coral beads, turquoise, leaf-pendants. In this decoration, we encounter figurative elements of women’s patrons: the bird’s head and the fruit of a grenade are a symbol of numerous offspring. Sometimes it would seem that the household, utilitarian product turned into a magnificent decoration with two rows of turquoise large beads and two rows of coral pendants, which, horizontally located, created a colorful fringe. There were also made pendants “Pentecost” with practical purpose; On her chains there were various toiletries. In Uzbek decorations attracts lightness, delicacy, color saturation, attention of the master to the mobility of the details of the decoration, the sparkling of metal and stones.
Ceramics Uzbek ceramic plumbers have more than six thousand years! In the archaeological materials of the most remote epochs, there are remarkably executed ceramic vessels. The painting on them is based on a sprout, a spot of “scabies” along the drawn engraved shingles of “chisma”. The decor was traditionally a vegetative, plastic character. Looking at it, I want to penetrate into the secrets of these ancient paintings, clearly showing something. Here is a vessel, on which the half-marbles, like mountains, on the half-marbles are vertical dashes, are not trees? And over them, the eight circle of radius is clearly an image of the solar disk. In the Samarkand ceramics of the X and XI centuries, a pattern of winged bird with a twisted tail, like a fish, is repeated in the pattern of the same sunny bird as on the nailers. Sometimes a bird on a ceramic vessel is depicted over a horse. Birds and fish are characteristic of Samarkand ceramics and the 12th century. Sometimes fish and birds are completely natural. The bird with a bow and a crook, like a clam, a beak.
The folk sources of ceramics are obvious. In the period of the ornamental culture of Islam, the Uzbek medieval ceramics retained amazingly realistic motifs. The master who observed the nature in time, sometimes gave such a vivid, natural image to the zoological atlas in the painting: from the 16th century the dish that was made in Samarkand has a picturesque pattern – a bird sitting on a branch that is so spontaneously written that it is not believed that this drawing about four hundred years.
There were some differences in the old ceramics, and above all in its color scheme: Rishtan and Khojent isolated blue-and-blue ceramics, while Shakhrisabz and Samarkand – with a predominance of brown glaze. The pattern, as a rule, is not constructed in form, but occupies the entire surface, in its composition and the logic of development existing as if no matter the shape of the object.
In the second half of the nineteenth century there is a known destruction of the national style of Uzbek ceramics, especially under the influence of imported factory fabrics and porcelain ware. Ornaments of Russian siths appear on the dishes. The well-known craftsman Abdu Fayiz Kulolchi in the dishes repeats the drawing of the products of the Morozov factory. Only the masters of Rishtan, this renowned center of ceramic art, remain faithful to the best traditions of national art. But from the assortment of products, ceramic washbasins, wash basins and fixtures disappear. But they began to make vases for flowers, flower pots – “gultovak”. In addition to the traditional, seemingly eternal motifs of flowering iris and tulip, blue bells appear.
A great deal had to be done by artists after the approval of the Soviet authorities for the purification of the national style in ceramics from all the incoming, inflicted, not characteristic. Currently, centers that successfully develop ceramic crafts are Samarkand, Rstansk, Tashkent, Gidvudan, Khiva. The red-brown clay with golden watering is characteristic for the ceramics of Samarkand, Tashkent, Shakhrisabz and Ghenduvana. In Rishtan, near Kokand, the masters make turquoise ceramics and dance-green with patterns of flowers and plant shoots. One of the interesting representatives of the art of Uzbek blue ceramics is Khakim Satimov. His works have a beautiful simple plastic shape and restrained decor of vegetation. Sh. Yusupov from Rishtan revived the caste painting in blue and blue in color on a white shingles. The dishes made by them are well-formed and sturdy. They are quite large n and have a nice and beautiful painting.
Master M. Rakhimov, who works in Tashkent, has spent a long time studying samples of antique lychee ceramics and glazed ceramics from Afrasiab. Based on these studies, he created his own special style. Its vessels of red clay are beautiful with their special, found form of vertical elongated lines, pure silhouette, not burdened with decor, plastic completion of the edge of the vessel. The vessels have a thin, well-burnt, well-cooked crock.
In these recent works of Uzbek masters, a great and serious search for new ways in the development of traditional ceramics, the ways based on in-depth knowledge of the traditions and techniques of old ceramics. Traditional, nationally-timed forms of vessels, such as the petty bourgeoisie, the body, and the spit, are still attracted.
Copper dishes The Shahrisibian craftsmen decorated with the peculiar love for the decoration of their products were colored enamel vials, colored glasses and even small mirrors. Until now, the best are the Khiva vessels. Easily distinguish them by the absence of handles. The shape of the vessels is simple and expedient. She is beautiful with its laconic simplicity, a good exhaust silhouette, flexible lines of transition from the body to the throat of the vessel. The Kokand vessels, on the other hand, are decorated with thin, graceful embossment patterns. Often they were decorated with turquoise and colored stones. Margelan vessels are easily distinguished by the cut pieces of the ornament, which is called “shabakka”.
The utensil not only served for practical purposes, it was as a work of art by the master was inspired by them and often had instructional inscriptions. For example, on one of the vessels it was written: “If possible, meet with clever people or a beautiful gentleman, a moonlit, if you can not even find one of these two, do not waste your life in vain, live lonely.”
With all the variety and richness of decor, the vessels made by Uzbek masters still maintain a high traditional mold of the form, which is distinguished by strict tectonics, pure exquisite lines of silhouette, expressive plasticity.
Typical in this respect is the traditional copper pitcher from Tashkent of the XIX century. The large body is accentuated by the slender diamond-shaped rhombuses engraved with blackening. The space between the diamonds is filled with an elegant pattern in the pattern. The lid of the jug is decorated with finer than turtle, a pattern made of thin, fragile lines. The figure is curly, high, above the lid and has a tight flexible profile, the nozzle of the vessel is tall, thin and plastic in shape. Emphasizing the line of the elongated nose, a strained tensile line of a narrow ribbon of the ornament is drawn along its surface.
The previously existing Uzbek miniature painting on papier-mache disappeared completely by the beginning of the XX century. In the 1930s there was a desire to restore it. The desire for this was greatly influenced by the success of the Paleshan, whose talent constellation was working in those fields precisely in those years. But the Uzbek masters in Fedoskino studied, so that the Palekh style, which expresses itself actively, did not affect the style of the future Uzbek art of painting on papier-mache. Palekh and Fedoskino’s painting technology coincides a lot, with the exception of the application of Tempera on the egg yolk in Palekh painting, which did not exactly correspond to the traditional Uzbek miniature technique. Before the war, it was not possible to seriously address this problem. But in the 1960s, in Tashkent, in the Association of Folk Arts, continued the old endeavors and made the first encouraging successes.
After the war, in the 1950s, numerous shops for the production of both hand-made and machine carpets began to be organized on the wave of increased demand for carpets in Uzbekistan. Turkmen masters were invited to train the masters of newly opened shops. The planting of Turkmen carpet in the field of Uzbek art inflicted a known damage to the Uzbek national culture. Later, in contrast to those eclectic carpets, they began to produce new so-called Khorezm carpets, in which an attempt was made to find their way in this form of art, using the motifs of Uzbek architectural decoration.