The Reims Gospel
The Reims Gospel.
According to legend, this relic of the French kings was seen by Peter I, when in 1717, on state affairs, he arrived in France. In the ancient city of Reims, the traditional place of the coronation of the French kings, in the cathedral, the priests showed him an old book written by mysterious characters, unknown to anyone in France. What was the surprise of the French when Peter picked up this book and began to read it freely enough to the shocked priests.
On April 29, 1717, a small French king, accompanied by his tutor Marshal François de Neuville, Duke de Villerua, came to Peter.
The next day Peter paid a return visit to the seven-year-old King of France Louis XV. A small ruler was waiting for the visitor at the front door of the Tuileries palace. Peter, jumping out of the carriage, picked up Louis in his arms, kissed him firmly and carried him up the palace staircase.
On June 3, the king with all his retinue went to Versailles. From Versailles, Peter went to Trianon, inspected a large water pipe, then drove to Marley, where the royal butler Deverton prepared for the king a brilliant fireworks accompanied by a musical concert, and at night a ball was given.
Then, returning to Paris on the 14th (according to the new style), Peter visited the Royal Printing House, the College of the Four Nations, founded by Cardinal Mazarin, and there he had a long talk with the then famous mathematician Varillon. Then Peter visited the house of Dude, who arranged a moving planetary sphere according to the Copernican system; his invention so pleased Peter that he bargained for two thousand crowns. Visiting the Sorbonne, Peter was received with great honors by the doctors of this institution and admired the beautiful tombstone of Cardinal Richelieu. The next days the king again visited the Tapestry Carpet Factory.
In addition, Peter spent two hours at the observatory, and the next day invited the famous cartographer of the time, Guillaume Delil, to visit him and talked to him for a long time through an interpreter.
From Paris, Peter the Great went to Reims.
In this city, getting acquainted with France, he arrived on June 22 (in a new style) in 1717. The visit of the Russian Tsar to Reims lasted only four hours. There, somehow, something happened that so struck the local Catholic priests. They Peter explained that this is a manuscript of the Old Russian Gospel.
From Reims, Peter traveled through Liege (Luttich), where he was treated on behalf of the Cologne Elector, and then arrived in Spa. There he used the water for a month, and on August 2 (in a new style) came to Amsterdam, where the queen Catherine looked forward to his return with impatience.
Leaving France, as they say, Peter remarked:
“I regret the king and France: she will die of luxury.”
What fell into Peter’s hands in the ancient capital of France turned out to be a parchment manuscript, a Church Slavic text.
According to Dmitry Ognev, “the main problem in dating and authorship is the first part. But almost all historians agree on the time and place of origin of the second part. ”
As we have already said, in 1717 Pyotr Pavlovich Shafirov, vice chancellor of Peter I who came to France, and his companions (and according to legend – the king himself) could read the first part of the manuscript containing the Slavonic language readings written in Cyrillic.
There are several versions of the origin of this first part of the Reims Gospel. The most authoritative of them says that the manuscript was created in the school of copyists at the library of Yaroslav the Wise and is a census from the Old Bulgarian Gospel of the XI century, written in Cyrillic alphabet (Bulgarian alphabet).
This manuscript was allegedly kept for a short time in the library of the Grand Duke of Kiev. In 1048, an embassy arrived in Kiev from the French King Henry I. The ambassadors were to receive consent to the marriage of their king with Princess Anna, one of Yaroslav the Wise’s daughters from his second wife, Irina. The consent of the grand-ducal family was given, and the bride of the king went to France through the cities of Krakow, Prague and Regensburg.
May 19, 1051, there was a wedding of Anna Yaroslavna and Henry I. Among the gifts that Anna brought to France, there was supposedly the first part of the Gospel, which is discussed in this chapter. Here this manuscript also received its name – the Reims Gospel.
The daughter of the Grand Duke of Kiev Yaroslav the Wise of the Rurikovich family, named Anna, was born in 1024 in Novgorod. She appeared just at the time when Yaroslav, for fear of his younger brother Mstislav the Brave, was hiding behind the strong walls of this city. It was in the year of Anna’s birth that Mstislav started the war with Yaroslav, as a result of which Chernigov and the entire left bank of the Dnieper ceded to him.
However, then the fraternal world was signed, after which it became clear that Mstislav does not seek sole authority. And in 1036 he died on the hunt. Before his death, Yaroslav’s residence was still Novgorod, in Kiev the same management was carried out by his boyars. After the death of his brother Yaroslav moved with his family and his team to the bank of the Dnieper.
And before that, in 1019, Yaroslav defeated his brother Svyatopolk the Wretched and forced him to flee to the Pechenegs, and then to the Czech Republic. There he died under mysterious circumstances. Thus, almost all the ancient Russian lands were under unified management.
Anna’s childhood years passed in Vyshgorod, sixteen versts from Kiev, down the Dnieper, or in Berestov, the suburban residence of the Kiev princes, where her father built the church of the Holy Apostles. There she studied with her elder brothers Svyatoslav and Vsevolod at the priest Hilarion. There she read her first book, which was called Psalter, and consisted of one and a half hundred Old Testament psalms. She did not part with such books for a single day, because in them she found words that moved the soul.
Anna received a good education as a child, she knew Greek and Latin, she knew the basics of healing. She knew and many other things, and it was not surprising, for, as they say in the Kiev chronicle of the X-XI centuries, called “The Tale of Bygone Years”, her father Yaroslav “loved books, reading them often and night and day.”
Anna’s lifetime images did not survive, except for the very poor quality of the frescoes. However, according to the testimonies of the French chronicles, the “golden-haired” daughter of the powerful Kiev ruler was famous for its beauty. And indeed, the rumor about it reached the French King Henry I, and in 1044 he sent the first wedding embassy to distant Russia.
But this ambassador was refused. Perhaps at that time Yaroslav hoped, with the help of a similar marriage, to strengthen relations with countries closer to its borders. They say, for example, that he intended to extradite his daughter for the German emperor, but the Germans refused the dynastic union.
On the other hand, at that time Ancient Rus was at the same level of development with neighboring European countries and played a significant role in shaping the image of medieval Europe, but the present France at that time was a conglomeration of feudal estates in which local dukes, barons sat autocratic rulers and graphs. The immediate possessions of the king, whose power was largely nominal, was a narrow territory stretching to the north and south of Paris. It could be seen on the map only under a strong magnifying glass, but they did not exist then. Therefore, the unwillingness of Yaroslav the Wise to give his daughter for God knows who it was quite understandable.
Nevertheless, the childless Henry I needed an heir. Knowing about the youth and beauty of the Russian princess, in 1048 he sent new ambassadors for new negotiations.
Henry of the Capetian dynasty, the son of King Robert II and Constance of Arles, was born in 1011 and ruled in his country from the age of twenty.
When Henry I became king, Burgundy was given to his younger brother, who became the ancestor of a special ducal family.
Initially, in 1034, Henry was betrothed to Matilda, the daughter of Conrad I, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, but the marriage did not take place because of the premature death of the bride, who did not even have time to get acquainted with her named.
In 1043 Henry married another Matilde, the daughter of the Margrave of Frisia and the niece of Emperor Henry III of Germany, but a year later she died as a result of an unsuccessful caesarean section.
Thus, by the time the second embassy was sent to distant Kiev, the 37-year-old Henry was widowed and childless. “Really,” thought the king without irony, “I’ll never be lucky.” Such a situation greatly weighed on him. Of course, the king had very charming concubines, and this calmed the nerves a little, but could not save him from a constant yearning, for he wanted to find the spouse, the legal spouse, capable of becoming the queen of France, and make him happy with heirs …
The ambassadors were instructed at any price to obtain consent to the marriage with Anna, for, as we have already said, “fame came to France about the delights of the princess, the daughter of Yaroslav”. The king told me to convey that he was “fascinated by the story of her perfection.”
To all other things, the king heard rumors about the fertility of the Slavonic princess. When Queen Matilda died, Henry did not think long. Almost all the neighboring monarchs already belonged to the Capetian house in blood relationship, and the Church severely punished for marriages on relatives to the seventh tribe, calling them incestuous. This measure brought a lot of difficulty to the kings. Poor people and in fact almost all were relatives, so now it’s very difficult to create a worthy couple, and it’s almost impossible for some rulers.
The thought of turning in search of the bride to the distant Grand Duke of Kiev came to Henry almost immediately. In addition, after inquiring, he learned that Yaroslav’s wife was the daughter of King Olav of Sweden and he himself had already given one daughter for the Norwegian King Harald the Bold, and the other for the Hungarian King Andrew. In addition, Henry was assured that the lar of the Kiev ruler was stuffed with gold coins, and this circumstance further strengthened his attraction to the distant Russian beauty.
decided to marry, he could not find a better intermediary in such a matter than the bishop of Shal she.
The second ambassador was Gautier Saweyer, bishop of the city of Mo, a man of a completely different kind, not suited to economic affairs, but a very learned man, nicknamed for his reading by the All-Knowing (later he would become Anna’s teacher and confessor).
Accompanying the embassy, the seignior Goslen de Chauny, who had been instructed to protect the bishops from robbery attacks on the deaf roads, was a knight to the marrow of bones: he was an excellent sword, shot accurately from a crossbow and was considered the most tireless hunter in the royal possessions.
The ambassadors were accompanied by several more glorious knights, as well as many squires and grooms. Warriors rode in long leather shells with copper badges, in the same pants below the knees and in forged helmets that protected the head and nose from blows. The spears of the Frankish warriors were heavy, and shields of such size that they protected the whole body well.
The movement of the embassy was slowed down by heavy carriages with gifts sent to Heinrich’s father by his future wife: as a gift to Prince Yaroslav, magnificent fighting swords, overseas fabrics, bowls of precious metals were intended …
and Anastasia – for Hungarian. These marriages, as their father believed, strengthened friendship and peace.
Yaroslav did not have much affection for the Constantinople rulers and only waited for the opportunity to get rid of Theopemt and put in his place his pet Hilarion. The Metropolitan aroused the Grand Duke’s displeasure with a penchant for spying, as well as the protection of Korsun merchants, whose goods found a duty-free shelter behind the stone wall of the metropolitan court near the St. Sophia Church.
Anna’s long journey to her future husband lay through Poland. Yaroslav wanted her to visit her aunt Maria-Dobrogega (sister of Yaroslav), whose husband, Polish King Kazimir, knew the family of Henry well. Casimir once lived in Paris and Burgundy, was for some time a monk of the famous abbey in Cluny and spoke good French. He could give Anna a lot of useful advice.
And in Esterhome the queen was Anna’s sister Anastasia, a light-eyed, simple-hearted fat woman who nevertheless captivated the heart of King Andrew when he was still a young prince who came to Kiev in search of refuge during Ugric troubles and was remembered by the Kievans with his numerous buttons; she also very much wanted to visit in a foreign land.
Therefore, the path for Anna was chosen as follows: Gniezno, Krakow, Prague and from this city turn to the side, on Esztergom. From here to Regensburg it was necessary to sail along the Danube in a boat, and then, through Worms and Mainz, there was already a direct land road to Paris.
For his sister Mary-Dobronega, Yaroslav gave the king of Poland Casimir a large dowry, and the latter returned eight hundred captured Russians. Good relations with Poland were consolidated and the marriage of my brother Anna Izyaslav to the sister of Casimir, the Polish princess Gertrude.
King Kazimir took his cousin from Kiev very well and happily began to tell her about France:
“I knew Henry as a young man, I saw him sometimes in the palace.” He is tall, not very lively in movements, but he is not slow, and I believe that now he has turned out to be a brave knight. I remember that he spoke with pleasure about horses and weapons. Apparently, the king is well versed in military affairs. I was informed that he was particularly insistent in the siege of the cities and for that he was nicknamed the Town Destroyer. But Henry treats the book art with complete indifference, not as an example to his late father, who incessantly read the Latin Bible.
Heinrich really did not possess great abilities or diligence in studying the sciences, he was not considered competent in theology or music as his educated father, King Robert, but he was known as an active man, ready to work day and night, and patient, like the most ordinary sparse peasant. It was not for nothing that some claimed without paying attention to the fantastic genealogy that derived the Capetian family from Sidonia Apollinarius, born in Gaul, where his father and grandfather were the chiefs of the Roman praetorians, that the distant ancestors of the king were simple Auvergian settlers, and this even aroused sympathy for ordinary people new reigning house.
Cheerful and little-known Henry’s youth passed during the bloody civil war that lit the fires of the Heavens of Ile-de-France. So called the royal area, located on both banks of the Seine, covered with forests and crossed by eternally broken roads. Capetines only by title were the kings of France, therefore in every way they tried to expand the boundaries of their possessions. However, everywhere along the way, gray whips of their vassals’ castles arose, which had already turned from logs into stone ones. Henry, in turn, also built fortresses when he found the means, and these gloomy structures also appeared on his lands. In those harsh times rulers were not up to the beauties of landscapes. The same Henry was crowned even during the life of his father, but the crown barely stayed on his head.
Note that King Robert II, the son of Hugo Capet, being a peace-loving and very religious man, completely absorbed in cathedrals and church music, paid very little attention to state affairs. The last years of his life were marred by a quarrel with his sons. The quarrel of the quarrel is believed to have been Queen Constance, who was anxious to pass the throne to her younger son Robert. Because of this, the two elder sons of the king – Hugo and Henry, deprived of almost any content, were forced to lead the lives of roving knights. Hugo died very young, but Henry, reconciled with his father, was appointed his successor.
Anna came to the city of Rheims on May 14, 1049. King Henry, having lost all patience and not wanting to wait any more for an hour, left, accompanied by his retinue, to meet her.
In his more than forty years he was obese and always gloomy. Now he even had something to frown at: he was waiting for Anna with great excitement and some anxiety, repeatedly asking himself the same question: did he do the right thing by going on an extramural engagement, and whether he would not have to end his days regret the careless step taken?
But, as soon as he saw the daughter of Grand Duke Yaroslav, his fears dissipated. She was so handsome that the king immediately fell in love with her.
The news that the bride from distant lands came to the king, quickly spread from the village to the village. From all sides on the road flocked to people. Anna was greeted with enthusiasm, and local women were shouting something to the future queen, marveling at her strange side, which they had never seen before. The people rejoiced at Anna’s arrival, as if hoping that now a difficult life would be easier, and the crops more abundant.
In Reims, the marriage ceremony and the coronation of Anna were to take place. Yet no French queen was awarded such honor, but Henry believed that such a rite would only strengthen the rights of his future heir. But already from the first days of Anna’s stay in France, he had to face her stubborn character. So, for example, she resolutely refused to swear, laying her hand on the Latin Bible, and stated that she would only swear an oath on the Slavic Gospel, which she brought with her. Enchanted by her charms, Henry was forced to yield, despite the grumbling of the bishops.
By the way, in Paris the marriage certificate signed by Anna is still kept.
Later, under the influence of circumstances, Anna will accept Catholicism, and in this the daughter of Yaroslav will show wisdom – both as a French queen and as the mother of the future king of France. And while on its head was assigned the golden crown, and she became the queen of France.
The wedding took place on May 19, 1051 in the Abbey of St. Remigia, and the coronation ceremony – in the Church of the Holy Cross, the very same place where the famous Reims Cathedral now stands.
At the end of the coronation, a magnificent feast was held in the archbishop’s palace.
Paris did not find Anna a beautiful city. The Royal Palace resembled a fortress with its mighty walls and stained windows. The girl, accustomed to the beauties of the capital city of Kiev, in which at that time there were more than four hundred churches, formed by interlocutors and the huge size of the country, all this was somehow strange. Indeed, Paris began the XI century compared with Kiev looked like a provincial town.
“In what barbaric country you sent me,” she wrote to her father. “Here, dwellings are gloomy, churches are ugly, and morals are terrible.” However, she was destined to become the queen of this country, where even the royal courtiers were almost entirely illiterate.
When the King was absent, Anna climbed the palace tower on a spiral staircase. From here, the city’s surroundings, a greenish river and old willow trees bent over the water were well visible. The city was surrounded by walls, half stone, half oak. All the space inside the fortifications was built up by tall and narrow houses, among which here and there were the same gray churches as all around. How could all this was not like her native Kiev! ..
In 1053, finally, what happened to the woman nature, and Anna, to the great joy of the king, gave birth to him a healthy and incredibly screaming heir.
After this, Henry temporarily removed his wife from public affairs. He was ready to fulfill any of her wishes and give her new lands; he was all shining, looking at the long-awaited newborn. It should be noted that during the pregnancy, Anna did not lose sight of her eyes and did not allow her to go down the steep stone staircase alone-such was the command of the king, who feared that an awkward step might lead to the fall of the future mother and thereby cause harm to the fetus.
Unfortunately, Robert will die before ten years, but Hugo will become famous Hugo the Great, the founder of the second house of Vermandois, one of the leaders of the First Crusade.
To secure the crown for his offspring, Henry decided, following the example of his father, to crown his first-born Philip in advance.
This coronation took place in Reims on May 29, 1059. For Anna, the ceremony turned into an event full of excitement. The ceremony was performed by the Archbishop of Rheims, Gervais, in the presence of two papal legates – bishops Hugo Besancon and Ermanfruus of Zion.
Although Philip was barely seven years old, Heinrich wished that the ancient rite was performed completely. The king feared everything; otherwise the enemies could challenge Philip’s sacred rights to the throne in the future, citing some omission.
The ceremony turned out to be long and boring, all its participants were terribly tired, but many were watching with pleasure the behavior of little Philip in this kind of theatrical performance. Still, the spectator of such representations had to be not every day. However, the little Philip was excellent and never gave reason to doubt that he was a worthy son of a worthy king.
In the first years of the war, Henry with half-and-half managed to put together a coalition to fight the Duke of Normandy Wilhelm. Under the banner of the king were Burgundy, Auvergne, Anjou, Champagne and Gascony. While Henry himself, along with the Count de Martel, betrayed him, ravaged the area around Evra, the brother of the king plundered cities and villages located on the lower course of the Seine. In such cases, the seniors somehow sat in their castles, but defenseless peasants suffered greatly from the sword and fire, so at the first signs of hostilities they took their miserable possessions and fled into forests and swamps. But the king and his brother were too carried away by easy victories, and at that time Wilhelm assembled a well-armed army. The powers of Henry were scattered, and the vassals were in no hurry to help. As a result, in 1054 the French knights suffered from the Normans severe defeat at Mortemar. Three years later, stubborn Henry made another attempt to crush Wilhelm and invaded the heart of Normandy, seeking to capture the city of Bayeux, famous for the ancient Norman traditions. However, the defeat at Varavil destroyed all the plans of the king, and he again had to give the enemies of the French cost so much blood to the castle of Trier.
In the days when the Battle of Varaville took place, Anna was in Paris, experiencing great anxiety. Hoping to hear the victorious trumpets, she often went to the window and listened to the return of the king. But there was silence behind the window. Paris fell asleep, and her Henry still somewhere wandered along the roads of Normandy, blown through all the winds and filled with cold autumn rains. The queen went down again and again in her armchair and covered her face with her hands. On the contrary, only sighed heavily Bishop Gautier Sawayer …
Henry returned home defeated. He was sad and immediately began to prepare for a new war with the Duke of Wilhelm, a worthy opponent, whom history called the Conqueror. And suddenly, in the midst of these preparations, King Henry I passed away. This sad event occurred on August 4, 1060 in the castle Vitry-o-Log, near Orleans.
Henry I was buried in the abbey of Saint-Denis, who was in the personal possession of the royal family for many years.
After the death of her husband Anna and her sons settled in Sanlis, a small castle forty kilometers from Paris.
The Chronicler wrote that Anna loved Sunlis “both for the wonderful inhaled air, and for the pleasant amusements of hunting, the only thing from which she enjoyed herself.”
Here it was founded and the nunnery, and the church of St. Vincent (on the portico of the latter during the reconstruction in the XVII century was erected a molded image of the Russian princess in full growth with a model of the temple she built in her hand and the inscription: “Anna Russkaya, Queen of France, erected this cathedral in 1060 “).
Soon the Dowager Queen had other concerns. Despite the grief for the deceased spouse, Anna arranged in Sanlis secular receptions, which attracted a lot of people. Grandees from nearby castles often went to her bow and, as the Viscount de Ke of Saint-Eimur tells us, “they paid her tribute not only as a queen, but as a woman.” The words “paid tribute” to each one are free to understand to the best of their own imagination; There are no clear facts here and can not be. Yes, many guests selflessly fell in love with the beautiful Anna, but they were unlikely to achieve reciprocal feelings.
According to Henry’s will, Anna was to become the guardian of her young son Philip. However, Anna – the mother of the king – remained a queen and became
regent, but guardianship, according to the custom of the time, gave to the men, the brother-in-law of the late King Count Baudouin of Flanders and Gervais de Belleme, Archbishop of Reims.
Fortunately for the young king and his mother, during the first years of the regency, there was no disturbance in the country: the title of the king of France acted upon people as a kind of magical spell, and no vassal dared to raise his hand to the God-anointed boy.
From a young age, Philip was distinguished by a sharp mind, suspicion, distrust of people, contempt for their weaknesses and indiscriminate means for achieving their goals. Like Henry I, he had few military abilities, but from the very beginning of his reign the young king compelled himself to listen, and in this respect his mother helped him, since it was difficult to escape the networks of her charm and not do what she wanted.
Studying the sciences and knowing Latin well, the young man nevertheless, without special respect, treated the conversations of learned men who, in his opinion, only did what they poured from empty to empty. Philip preferred songs of minstrels and tricks of jugglers, and never in France did not write as many poems as during the years of his reign. He loved to surround himself with young people, who saw in him not only the king, but also got into cheerful leprosy and amorous adventures. So Philip was striving to bind his companions to himself more reliably. The young king looked soberly at the world around him, and his tongue was sharp, and the expressions often did not differ from the area ones. However, some actions of the king gave reason to think that the French eccentricity was completely connected with him with calm Russian reasonableness. Philip spared no one in his statements, because he believed that everyone should be responsible for their actions, and in this respect he made no exception even for the pope himself, which greatly upset the queen.
In any case, Anna could not avoid seeing this beautiful and proud count at the trials, at the royal councils or feasts. However, it was only after her husband’s death that she appeared before him as a free woman. Raul de Crepy was able to wait, and he waited for his time.
Anna always admired him. She was so unlike the other women around him, and above all, his wife, the full-breasted Alienor. Raoul, with all his might, attracted Anna, and he would have thought of falling to her knees in front of her and kissing the edge of her dress. So he did once, when he happened to be alone with her in one of the palace rooms.
Meanwhile, strange changes took place in Raoul’s soul. Some were surprised to see how his self-satisfaction and pride were gradually replaced by a feeling of anxiety and even disappointment. Be that as it may, the Earl learned of the existence in the world of things that can not be acquired for any treasure and which can not be seized by force, and for the first time doubted his power.
The Queen has been widowed for two years already. She was in full blossom of her beauty; was able not only to inspire any person with fiery love, but also to share it. Anna was attracted to this strong man, but the books that she spent reading at night all the while gave birth to her longing for great and beautiful love. And yet everything around her was so primitive: a man was hugging a woman, and when she, inflamed by her feminine nature, and sometimes yielding to force or necessity, gave herself to him, he satisfied his desire and began to snore calmly; and even worse – he immediately left his mistress and on the nearest feast started shamelessly telling his friends about her charms.
it was this heavily fortified castle, only here he could feel completely safe.
Kidnapping is so romantic! Gradually, Anna’s soul calmed down, mourning mood fell into the background, and she began to respond to the caresses of ardent Raul with kisses. And then the local priest married them.
The story of this marriage, which took place in 1062, made a lot of noise. The fact is that Raul de Crepy, the Earl of Valois, was already married, and the second time. His first wife was Adele, the daughter of the Count de Bar-sur-Aub, and from this marriage they had six children, including sons Gautier, Alyx and Simon. Widowed, the count in 1054 again married, this time on some Alienor, no information about which is not preserved. It is only known that this same Alienora immediately complained to the Pope Alexander II of her husband’s unseemly behavior and he promised to order Raoul to terminate the marriage with Anna, declaring it invalid.
Rumors about what happened to the French queen, quickly spread throughout Europe. The divorce of Count de Valois and his marriage to Anna was indeed illegal in terms of canonical ordinances.
For some time, the two lovers did not know about the evil rumors that went about them throughout the kingdom. They were indifferent to the opinion of others, they were not interested in what their yardstick could have caused their behavior. Most of the time, Anna and Raul spent in bed, in the heat of tender love, satisfying their passions …
Finally, Gervais de Belleme, Archbishop of Rheims, intervened. Met somehow the count in the royal palace, he tried to persuade him to release Anna and return to the marriage bed Alienor, referring to the opinion of the pope.
And then he added to this and other words that no chronicler would have dared to put in his chronicle, so they were disrespectful to the heir to St. Peter. But what could be done about this ungodly atheist!
The archbishop coughed into a fist and stopped this useless and insecure conversation.
hiding and not showing a drop of embarrassment or signs of remorse. In the end, all resigned, and their marriage was recognized. In addition, the King of France Philip considered it prudent to reconcile with his mother and her new husband.
Anyway, Anna began to live with Raul in the fortified castle of Mondidier and at the same time manage France along with her son-king. From this time documents with her signatures were preserved, and it is noteworthy that she continued to sign Cyrillic and, much less often, Latin letters – Appa matris Filipi Regis (Anna, the mother of King Philip).
However, the turbulent life did not pass for the count without a trace, and he increasingly complained of pain in the heart. Despite the fact that the doctor, according to him, who studied in the famous Salerno Academy, forbade the count to eat fried meat, fat and fat geese, and especially to abuse wine, he nevertheless ate at the table several pieces of beef and drank no less than a jug of strong wine , causing his face to become purple, losing the last remnants of his former beauty.
It was 1074 year. And then on one of the dark nights from 21 to 22 February, Count de Valois died, and Anna was again a widow.
Having lost Raul, Anna tried to forget herself, plunging into state affairs again. Knowing the attitude of the son of the late Simon, who became after the death of his father Count de Valois, and about the hostility of many of his associates, she left Mondidier, with whom so much was connected in her life, and moved to Paris, to her son Philip. There she again began to sign decrees and orders (her confident signature will often be seen on the business papers of the French court next to the “crosses” of illiterate royal officials).
The French historian, referring to the state charter signed by Anna, notes: “On her, Anna was not satisfied, according to the custom of those times, for general illiteracy, to put a cross next to her signature written by the scribe’s hand, but she personally signed it in her own name in Russian” .
The time dragged along in the vaulted halls of the palace in Paris. Sometimes the queen was suffering from insomnia. And if she was asleep, then the first thought of Anna in the morning, on waking, flew to dear sisters and brothers, and one day she had a burning desire to send someone to Russia, so that this person would visit her relatives, with her own eyes looked at what there happens, and, having returned to France, he told everything.
Anne Voltz brought very sad news. It turned out that soon after her departure from Kiev her mother died. Four years after his wife’s death, on February 19, 1054, the father of Anna, Grand Duke Yaroslav the Wise, died in Vyshgorod. He was buried in Kiev, in St. Sophia Cathedral.
Unfortunately, the old Yaroslav’s patient lacked the determination to leave the supreme authority to one of his sons. He divided his lands among the sons, willing them to live in harmony, honoring his elder brother. His elder brother was Vladimir, who was sent to reign in Novgorod, but he died two years before his father, and therefore Izyaslav, who was married to the sister of the Polish king Casimir, was now considered elder. At first he received from the father of the town of Turov, but after the death of his elder brother and Yaroslav the Wise himself became the Grand Duke of Kiev. The third brother Svyatoslav became Prince of Chernigov, Vsevolod – Prince of Pereyaslav, Vyacheslav – Prince of Smolensk, and Igor – Prince of Vladimir.
Wolz arrived in Kiev just in those days when Izyaslav and Vsevolod had already returned from the disastrous campaign. A lot of refugees from the border villages have accumulated in the city. All these were simple peasants who sought protection from the high Kiev ramparts. The situation looked close to catastrophic, and Izyaslav did not show the proper energy worthy of the eldest of the descendants of Grand Duke Yaroslav. In 1068, he was overthrown by the popular uprising that began in Kiev and fled to Poland. With the help of the Polish troops, he returned the following year, but the “triumvirate of the Yaroslavichs” had already disintegrated, and the younger brothers Svyatoslav and Vsevolod conspired against Izyaslav. In 1073 Svyatoslav of Chernigov captured Kiev, and Izyaslav again fled to Poland, where this time the Polish authorities did not accept him, because they had already made an alliance with Svyatoslav and Vsevolod.
About the last years of Anna Yaroslavna’s life little is known. The last signed letter refers to the year 1075. The further fate of her is a mystery behind seven seals.
There is a legend that at the end of her life Anna Yaroslavna returned to her homeland and, having lived there for several years, died. Knocked at the foot of her statue in Sanlis, the line “Anna returned to the land of her ancestors” seems to give grounds for historians to think so. Russian annals about this, however, are silent. Perhaps she went to Kiev, but returned to France, where she loved and was loved and where her whole life went. In fact, let’s ask ourselves: what was this woman doing in the country she left in her youth and in which she now did not know anyone?
According to other versions (and they look more reliable), she did not go anywhere and lived her life at the court of Philip’s son. According to the Russian historian Nikolai Karamzin, “ambition, family ties, Catholic customs and belief, accepted by it, kept this queen in France”.
Some argue that in the last years of her life, Anna traveled extensively throughout Europe. In particular, when she became aware that her brother Izyaslav, defeated in the struggle for the Kiev throne, is in Germany, in the city of Mainz, she allegedly recalled that Henry IV of Germany was friendly with King Philip (both of them were in conflict with the pope) , and set off on a journey, counting on a good reception. But, arriving in Mainz, she allegedly learned that Izyaslav had already moved to the city of Worms, and then the persistent and stubborn widow continued the journey, but fell ill on the road. In Worms she was informed that Izyaslav had gone to Poland, and his son to Rome, to his father. In the opinion of Anna Yaroslavna, it was not in those countries that one should seek friends and allies for Russia.
Afflictions and diseases finally broke Anna, and she died presumably in 1082 in a very old age at that time. According to other versions, this happened somewhere between 1076 and 1089. In any case, the exact date of her death is unknown, as is the exact location of the burial of this amazing woman in 970, the founder and first abbot of the Sazav Monastery.
According to the second version, it is believed that the manuscript was written in 1395 by angular Glagolitic monks of the Emmaus Monastery, built in the Prague area in 1347 for the Order of Benedictine monks, for the performance of Catholic worship in the Slavonic language. In the Glagolitic part of the scribe-Czech introduced the Chekhism, so that it belongs to the Croatian-Czech derivation (edition). At the end of this part there is an entry in the Czech language Glagolitic, in which the scribe reports that the Cyrillic part is written by the Monk Procopius Sazavsky.
According to another version, the manuscript was donated to the Emmaus Monastery by Emperor Karl GU, who acquired it somewhere in Ugria (Hungary).
The Hussites kept it for about forty years. At the end of the Cathedral of Florence (1438-1445), Pope Eugene IV declared the Czech-Utraquists (moderate supporters of Jan Hus) heretics. After this, the hope for the reunification of the Czech Republic with Rome fell. For this reason, the Czech embassy was equiped in Constantinople, and to gain a better reception and success of the negotiations, the Sazavo-Emausa Gospel was annexed as a symbol of reconciliation of the Czech Church with the Eastern Churches.
In Constantinople, it was a century. The Constantinople painter Constantine Paleocappa in 1546 brought him with other rarities, which he traded, at the Triden Cathedral. Here it came with other treasures to Cardinal Carl of Lorraine, who, like Archbishop of Reims, donated it as a gift to his cathedral on the eve of Easter in 1574. For the manuscript, an expensive binding was made with the enclosures of holy relics and precious ornaments. ”
In the Reims cathedral, the manuscript was kept since 1574 as a mysterious eastern manuscript. Cardinal Carl of Lorraine himself carried this manuscript during solemn processions on his chest as a great shrine.
Be that as it may, the Reims Gospel began to be sworn in by the French kings at the coronation. The first of these was the son of Henry and Anna, Philip G. It is likely that Philip G swore an oath on this Gospel out of respect for his mother, who was still alive. It is not excluded that she herself proposed to do so. Then this tradition was strengthened and continued with interruptions until almost the end of the 19th century.
Dmitry Ognev, detailing the second version of the origin of the relic, admits that “there is no princess of Anna Yaroslavna in the history of the Reims Gospel.”
According to the second version, this Gospel became Reims only in the second half of the XVT century. Accordingly, the French kings who took the oath on it since 1552 were as follows: in 1559 – Francis GG; in 1561 – Charles IX, son of Catherine de ‘Medici; in 1575 his brother Henry III; in 1589, Henry IV (the first of the Bourbons) for some reason evaded this tradition; in 1610 – Louis XIII; in 1654 – Louis XIV, in 1715 – Louis XV and in 1774 – Louis XVI.
On the fate of the relic Dmitry Ognev tells the following:
“In 1793, at the behest of the First Consul of France, Napoleon Bonaparte, all manuscripts, including the Reims Gospel, were transferred to the municipal library of the city of Rheims. Here he was kept in perfect order, having deprived only of all ornaments, jewels and holy relics. Since 1799 in Russia this manuscript was considered irretrievably lost until the Russian scientist A.I. Turgenev in 1835, examining foreign archives, did not find her whereabouts.
Now this relic is still kept in the Reims city library. “It is written on parchment and consists of 47 sheets, of which 45 are written from two sides, and the other two are empty. It is interwoven in two boards of an oak tree and covered with a dark red morocco. Ornaments are attributed to the genus of Byzantine art of the 9th or 10th centuries. The manuscript is often decorated with ornaments. There are flowers, leaves, human images. ”
The first part of the manuscript is nothing more than a fragment of the Bulgarian Gospel, written half-written. It begins with the words: “Great is the man chudishasya glagoljusche: what is like the wind and the sea of his poslovusha …”. Following him are the instructions of the Gospel readings on October 27 and 30. Then the months are November, December, January and February. The manuscript ends in early March. The last words: “In the evening the former verb is the lord of the grapes to the building …”. Gospel readings are arranged on days, starting from the first month of each month, but not all in a row. For example, for October 27 is not 28, but 30; 30 starts November. In February, the readings are only for seven days: 1, 2, 3, 11, 13, 23 and 24; also in other months. The first part consists of 16 sheets. The beginning of the manuscript is lost.
The second part, consisting of 29 leaves, is written in Glagolitic and incorporates Sunday readings from the New Testament (from the Colored Week to the Annunciation) according to the rite of the Roman Catholic Church.
Methodius, and to France was brought as a gift to Wilhelm Belokurom, Archbishop of Reims, at the beginning of the 13th century by Emperor Baldwin, who seized her at the capture of Constantinople. Another version insists that this manuscript was brought by Empress Elena Serbskaya in 1250-1270. in the Czech Republic. All these disputes around the Reims Gospel are caused by two reasons. The first of them is connected with the fact that scientists themselves, not seeing this monument and knowing about it only according to the testimony of only a few travelers who were unfamiliar with the Slavic language, spoke and built guesses about it only on the basis of general considerations. The second reason is that the first facsimile edition of this book, made in 1843, had many mistakes, “which appeared under the guidance of a French master who did not understand the text or even the letters of the manuscript being copied,” which, in turn, has led to even greater disagreements. ”
The Reims Gospel
Dmitry Ognev says:
“Today the Reims Gospel is one of the oldest monuments of church writing and stands alongside such ancient manuscripts as a fragment of the Gospel readings of the Kiprianov list; The Russian Gospel of 1092-1097; The Turov Gospel of the XI century; The printing book of the Gospel Readings of the XI century; Mstislav’s Gospel of 1117; The St. George’s Gospel of 1119; The Crimean Gospel of 1144 and other monuments. ”