Zlatoust engraving on steel
Zlatoust engraving on steel
Zlatoust’s engraving on steel plates began in the mid-1930s when producing wafer plates for calendars. In those years, the main artistic direction in the engraving of the Zlatoust instrumental combine was socialist realism. Mainly depicted the leaders, corps and equipment of Soviet factories. It had nothing to do with classical engraving on steel, and portraits of people looked just terrible. Now this kitsch is a huge rarity in museum and private collections. In the late 1930s, the young then still an artist-engraver AI. Boronnikov tried and implemented the technology of nickel halftones, which simultaneously with gilding and blue allowed to give some volume and realism to the drawings.
After BOB Boronnikov and several young artists-engravers, graduates of the factory school, try this technique on plates, depicting pictures of famous artists, as well as Ural landscapes. And if the work with the image of people looks still poor, then with the scenery everything is much more interesting – the harsh Urals nature: mountains, coniferous forests, forest rivers and lakes are well and distinctly transferred to cold and hard nickel-plated steel. It must be said that this still has nothing to do with classical engraving.
Nobody, never and nowhere else has done this – it captivates and inspires artists to create quite a large number of works. It should be noted that each work is unique and not yet replicated, since it is completely (from beginning to end) performed by the artist-engraver by hand. The technology for manufacturing these works is quite complex: drawing a pattern on the protected surface of a polished plate, trawling in acid (possibly engraving with a needle), nickel plating, gilding and shining.
To create more relief images, etching can be performed several times.
From the side of professional applied artists Zlatoust innovation is constantly criticized for departing from all the basic principles of engraving on metal. But, despite of everything, the craft lives and develops. The management of the plant and the ministry are concerned with one question: how to bring this art to the mass Soviet buyer, because no one except the artists themselves and small visitors of the exhibitions can see single hand-made plates. In 1964 standard samples for consumer goods were introduced.
In 1971, for the replication of the pattern from the standard, the method of glass is introduced, it is very productive and allows increasing the production of prints tenfold. One problem is that they are deprived of their unique individuality, and what is the standard? In artistic councils, designed to approve the standards for mass production, there are very few artists, administrators, technicians and economists rule there. And therefore, several hundred hand-made engravings executed in the 1940s and 1950s, among which there are a lot of unconditional masterpieces, lies in the factory reference room. It is difficult to track their future destiny, but at the moment they are represented in a dozen state museums and a number of private collections.
Today in the Ekaterinburg Museum of Fine Arts for the first time a large-scale exhibition of Zlatoust engraving on steel has been held, and this exposition (about 200 works, Zlatoust Museum of Local Lore, Zlatoust Weapons Factory and the author of this catalog) has never been shown. The reader will also see this catalog for the first time.
Biographies of artists-engravers
Boronnikov Alexander Ivanovich 29.03.1909-3.03.1972 Zlatoust
Machine-building plant – combine, shop 16-19, was accepted 02.10.1925 for the post of engraver, where he worked in this position until 3.03.1972, dismissed due to death.
Boronnikov A.I. his creative path began with the teaching of engraving art, he studied with artists-engravers Yakovlev and Kiselev. Possessing the art of decorating the blade, creates its own original compositions of the Ural landscapes. Has been working for more than 25 years. The top of his work is the checker to the Supreme Commander-in-Chief Generalissimo Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin.
In 1945, Boronnikov and his comrades produced an honorable weapon under the leadership of the Boronnikov himself for Colonel-General Zhdanov, Marshal Zhukov, Marshal Tolbukhin, Marshal Govorov. With great skill, he portrayed the heroic battle of the Red Army for the city bearing the name of the leader. His engraving “The defeat of the Germans near Moscow” at the exhibition of folk art in Chelyabinsk received a second prize. Zlatoust engravers expressed their gratitude to the heroic defenders of the Fatherland by making knives. Original engravings “800 anniversary of Moscow” were created. Sketches for many products approved for replication are created. Products decorated with Boronnikov AI, were sold at Expo-67. Works were demonstrated at exhibitions in the union and abroad. For his creativity and impeccable work had government awards. The last gold medal of the Exhibition of People’s Economic Achievements is posthumous.
Bersenev 1bnadiy Mikhailovich 3.09.1923-April 2006 Zlatoust
Artist-engraver, Member of the Union of Artists of the USSR in 1983, Honored Artist of the Russian Federation.
At the Zlatoust Plant. Lenin from 1947 to 1991. Member of the Great Patriotic War. In 1954 he painted the painting “The foundation of the plant.” The main artist of the workshop number 16. For the preservation of the traditions of Zlatoust engraving on steel was awarded the Order of the October Revolution (1977). From 1992 to 2006 he was an artist of ZAO Practika. Many times I participated in exhibitions of the USSR and abroad.
Tarynin Vladimir F. 29.10.1931-1987 Zlatoust
He was born in Zlatoust, graduated from 6 classes. Enrolled in Uzbekistan No. 4, he studied from September 1, 1946 to July 13, 1949. July 13, 1949, was admitted to the Machine Building Plant. IN AND. Lenin in the shop number 6 fitter-assembler. After serving in the army, he was admitted to the plant and in December 1954 he received the 5th rank of engraver. On April 1, I960, he was transferred to work in 16 shops. Since April 17, 1962, he was acting as a master of the art department of the workshop. He retired on August 19, 1979 for disability (disabled group I). For participation in the 5 Republican exhibition “Soviet Russia” 1975 was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labor, the winner of the socialist competition and 11 times awarded with Diplomas of Honor.
Dragan Gennady Vladimirovich 21.08.1929 Zlatoust
Special education – RU No. 4 (1944-1945), a group of engraving artists. In 1945 he was admitted to the workshop No. 16 as an engraver. In 1950 he was drafted into the ranks of the Soviet Army. 1954 – the plant them. Lenin, shop number 16. Over the years of work has created a number of excellent sketches, for which the author’s piece works were made. From 1967 to 1971 he worked as a senior engineer in the department of the chief architect of the plant.
Khalturin Anatoly Ivanovich
1935-1936 – studying in FZU, since 1936 the artist-engraver of shop number 16. Has shown creativity in work. Performed work for exhibiting at exhibitions of the USSR. Several subscription works are known. Member of the Art Council of the plant. Since 1955 he worked in the Obkom of the CPSU of the city of Chelyabinsk.
Dobrovolsky Mikhail Vasilyevich 1912 y. Quiet farm, Stavishchansky district, Kiev region.
I, Dobrovolsky Mikhail Vasilievich, was born on September 20, 1912 (October 14, 1912) in the village of Quiet Farm of the Stavishchansky District of the Kiev Region. After finishing the 7th grade, he left to work in the city of Stalino in mine No. 8, then to Central Asia in Stalinobod, Varzub as a laborer and worked there from 1931 to 1933. Then he worked at the station. Byakovo S. Napyshkino Saratov region carpenter, from 1933-1934 and by visual agitation, as well as in other places until 1935. I came to Zlatoust on 19.04.1936, I entered the Zlatoust Instrumental Works named after Zlatoust.
Lenin for the position of an engraver in shop number 16 and worked at the plant until 7.04.1953. In 1935 he entered the Tambov Art College, studied there for about a year, and also graduated courses of accountants in 1938 in Zlatoust. He mainly studied independently in art: a landscape painter, studied ornaments of all time and styles, I worked mainly with Alexander Boronnikov. In the workshop № 16 he worked with the following comrades: Morozov NF, his son Nikolay, Bakharev Vasily Matveyevich, Kozyrev Ivan Matveyevich – woodcarver, Chizhov Pavel, Nogtev Veniamin Ilyich, Nogtev Ivan Ilyich – the head of the art department. Minters: Yakovlev, Ryabov, Anatoly Ivanovich Khalturin.
Yakovlev Dmitry Egorovich 10/15/1880-1935
He worked at the Zlatoust instrumental combine since 1920. Leading artist of the combine from the 20’s and 30’s. He knew the engraver’s work perfectly. He was one of the first to introduce Soviet themes into engraving, using the technology of shining with semitones. According to his sketches, knives, forks, hatchets were engraved in 1930. In 1932 he moved to work at the Metalist artel.
Antipov Mikhail Stepanovich 30.12.1928-February 2006
Zlatoust engraving on steel
Extract from the autobiography:
December 5, 1943 was admitted to shop number 5 of the machine-building plant-combine them. IN AND. Lenin is a pupil of a locksmith. February 5, 1945 transferred to shop number 6 as an electric welder. After a short study and mastering the art of Zlatoust’s engraving on steel on April 14, 1946, he was admitted to the workshop No. 16 as an engraver. For the creation of more than 80 specimens of engraving on steel and impeccable work was awarded various state awards, the Order of the Red Banner of Labor for the performance of state order No. 319519 in 1977.
For success in the development of the national economy, he was awarded the bronze medal of the Exhibition of Economic Achievements in 1972 and the bronze medal No. 14075 in 1987. For the checker made by Comrade Zhivkov Theodor “For Merits – the Bulgarian People’s Army” bronze medal No. 008098, medal for Valiant Labor in the Second World War, in 1995 the jubilee medal of 50 years of the Second World War, veteran of labor from 24.01.89, the sign “Drummer of the 9th Five-Year Plan “- No. 7 of 14.11.1975, the sign” The Winner of Social Competition “1973 of the Ministry of Mechanical Engineering and 12 Honorary Diplomas and Thanks. He was dismissed in connection with his retirement on March 6, 1986.
Bakharev Vasily Matveyevich, born in 1874. Zlatoust
He worked at the combine since 1936 as an engraver in shop number 16. He was dismissed in connection with his retirement in 1940.
Morozov Nikolay Nikolaevich 1918 of the river.
Entered the plant on September 1, 1932, the workshop. Frunze is a pupil of the draftsman. Since 1932, the service in the Red Army, since 1940. Workshop No. 16 draftsman, since 1942, the service in the Red Army.
Goloshchapov Alexander Nikolayevich 18.06.1919 Installation, Miassovsky district, Chelyabinsk region
He worked at the combine as an artist-engraver since 1936. From 1939 to 1952 he developed several original sketches, according to which engravings were made. He worked in various specialties. He retired in 1988. Veteran of Labor, awarded a number of medals of the USSR.
Kuzmichev Alexander Ivanovich 10.05.1936 D. Wine Maydan, Gorky region
Extract from the autobiography:
In 1951 he graduated from the seven-year school. From 1951 to 1952 he worked in a tractor brigade. In 1953 he entered Pavlovsk Art School No. 34, graduated in 1956. Sent to Zlatoust for the machine-building plant. IN AND. Lenin as a metal engraver. From 1956 to I960 he worked at the plant. In 1961 he entered the Odessa Art College, studied for less than a year. In 1962 he returned to Zlatoust, where he worked at the plant from 1962 to 1973. During these years he developed sketches of a large number of souvenirs, some of which were produced in small print runs. Since 1975, the artist in the ZHKO plant them. Lenin.